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Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide for Unit 2 Essay

1) What are the parts of an atom? Where are the subatomic particles found? Protons, neutrons, and electrons. In the nucleus and on the orbitals and sub-orbitals of the atom.

2) How does the Atomic Mass # differ from the Atomic #?
Atomic mass # is the sum of all protons and neutrons in the atom’s nucleus. The atomic # is equal to the number of protons in an atom. 3) What is an isotope? Give an example (show how it is an isotope). An isotope is a radioactive form of an element or a form of an element with the same atomic # and the same amount of protons but a different atomic mass and a different amount of neutrons.

An example would be deuterium. Its atomic number is 1 and it has 1 neutron. Its atomic mass number is 2 and it is an isotope of hydrogen. 4) Compare and contrast the 3 basic types of chemical bonds and give an example of each. Ionic, Covalent, and Hydrogen. Ionic bonds form between atoms with opposite electrical charges. An example of an ionic bond is sodium chloride. Covalent bonds occur when atoms share forming molecules.

Carbon dioxide is an example of a covalent bond. Hydrogen bonds are weak attractions between the positive, hydrogen side of one polar molecule and the negative side of another polar molecule. DNA is effected by hydrogen bonds. 5) Why is pH important in Anatomy?

Low pH damage cells and tissues, alters proteins and interferes with normal physiological functions. High pH also causes problems, but occurs rarely. pH is highly important to anatomy because they intertwine with the internal maintenance of the body 6.9) Name the 4 main Organic Molecules in Biochemistry. Describe each one, and provide an example. What are the “building blocks” of each molecule? For example, protein = Amino Acid.

The 4 organic molecules in biochemistry are proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. The building blocks of the 4 molecules are as followed: Proteins = Amino Acids. Lipids= fatty acid and glycerol. Carbohydrates= monosaccharides, polysaccharides, disaccharides. Nucleic acids = nucleotides.

10) There are 4 levels of protein structure. What are the levels? How do the levels of a protein differ in structure and function? The 4 levels of protein structure are: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. The levels of proteins differ in structure in function as followed; Primary- the order of amino acids

Secondary- hydrogen bonds form
Tertiary- folds the secondary structure
Quaternary- several tertiary structures together

11) Describe the structure of ATP and why it is important?
Cells require energy to function. Energy is stored in high-energy bonds connecting a phosphate group to an organic molecule. Adding a third phosphate group to ADP and produces the high-energy-compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Breaking off ATP’s third phosphate releases the stored energy of the phosphate bond, providing energy for work. 12) Why is the plasma membrane important to cells.

Plasma membrane is important to cells because it provides the support and protection that the cell needs and it also shapes the cell. 13-17) Name 5 cell organelles and their functions.
Nucleus- the control center of the cell.

Mitochondrion- converts nutrients into energy that the cell can use Chloroplasts- converts radiant energy into chemical energy Ribosomes- synthesize proteins Lysosomes- responsible for the digestion of materials that are brought into the cell. They also break down old or non-functioning organelles.

18) Describe the structure of DNA. DNA is a double helix resembling a spiral staircase, with sugars and phosphates as the side rails and nucleotide pairs as the steps. The two halves of the DNA spiral are complementary strands.

19) How does DNA differ from RNA?
DNA stays within the nucleus of the cell while RNA travels. DNA has thymine and RNA has uracil. 20) Describe transcription and translation in your own words. Transcription is changing DNA to RNA. Translation is changing mRNA to a protein. 21) How are mitosis and meiosis similar…..different?

The result of mitosis is 2 cells while meiosis results in 4 cells. Meiosis deals with sexual reproduction while mitosis deals with asexual reproduction.

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