| Bornstein’s Model Approach to Validity Essay
Assessment is a challenge that characterizes the diverse field of psychology. In psychologist field, many things that take different forms are measured. This include both invisible psychological states and observable comportments; symptoms, variation in traits, skills and a wide assortment of Neurophysiological and neurochemical-chemical processes. With regard to universal reliance on validity assessment, it no wonder that psychological investigators are offering a lot of time, energy and funds to maximize test score validity in order to ensure that assessment tools that are used are efficient in measurement. Human sexuality is a psychological variable in sex therapy. Although human sexuality is common in psychiatric, quantification of human sexuality is usually limited to the paucity of validated and user friendly scales. In order to solve this matter, it is indispensable to compare and contrast between process focus model and traditional model in order to define the most applicable technique of assessing the validity.
The definition of validity has evolved significantly, and presents validity investigation that emphasizes more on correlational examination that assess predictor-Criterion connection. The most oblivious results of these criteria have been self-reports. Different model has been used in operationalization of validity. The most commonly used method includes the Process Focused model and traditional approach. In this paper, I will compare and contrast the process focus model with the traditional models of validity. A description of why Bornstein advocates for the use of process focus model of validity will also be provided. Lastly, I will explain how I would assess the validity of human sexuality using the step outlined by Bornstein.
Process Focus model vs. Traditional Models of Validity
The Process Focused Model hypothesize validity as being the point to which the respondent can be revealed to participate in an anticipatable set of emotional and psychological processes when testing are conducted, and when the processes involved are determined by the nature of instruments used and the context of the testing. In contrary, traditional methods are usually used in quantification of the connection between the benchmark and the test score. The process focused model applies experimental techniques to influence the variables that balance the criterion-test score interconnection. This enables the investigators not only to enhance the psychology examination techniques, but to also improve their understanding on the test performance misuse and bias by enlightening inter- and intra-personal elements that lead to varied performance in a different group.
Reliance on correlational techniques in quantification of validity in psychology as outlined by the traditional model has been found to be challenging. In addition, various psychologists have found numerous issues with the traditional method of conceptualizing validity. This occurs when the validity is equated with the magnitude of predictor technique explained in the process focuses model, which by definition a test score is valid for anything with which it relates. In the test of development goals domain, traditional validity model normally maximizes the test score results relationships. In process focused model, the test of development goals demonstrate an impact of a theoretically linked processes. In addition, process focused model seeks optimal manipulation when testing development challenges while traditional model uses optimal criterion measures.
The process focus model is much different from traditional validity assessment especially in the way it conceptualizes the idea of validity. Process focus model moves the weight of research and validity theory from the results to the process and from the relationship to execution. It is evident that supplementing the traditional validity examination with the process focus approach. It will not only enhance the psychological assessment techniques but will also improve the investigator knowledge on test score misuse. In addition, the process focused model, reverses the usual practice of dealing with superfluous variables that might essentially alter mental test scores. Instead of regarding them as difficult and problematic, the process focused model hypothesizes variables that are viewed as confounds in the traditional validity examination as an opening for exploration and manipulation.
Importance of Process Focused Model
Bornstein has advocated for the process focused model of validity. Through this ideal, it is easy to define validity as the degree to which the respondent is be viewed to engage in anticipatable sets of mental processes in a test. According Bornstein, identification of these mental processes allows experimental manipulations to be introduced in order to alter the processes, as well as to determine whether the modifications will influence the test scores. Process focus model ensures that the usual procedure of dealing with superfluous variables those changes the psychosomatic test scores is reversed.
Process focus model is normally extremely useful in enlightening the practices that inspire stimulus-attribution dependency score and self-attribution, and also assist in explaining the diffident interrelationship between widely applied measures of the same human sexuality psychological variable. In addition, process focus model has been found to provide distinct information on the validity that traditional technique cannot provide. However, it is crucial to note that none of the above validity model holds the potential to provide a comprehensive validity test score on its own.
The process focused model normally connects psychological examination and testing with other fields of psychology such as social, developmental and cognitive field. Most of the manipulation used in process based model has actually borrowed ideas from different psychology sub fields that include memory, self-presentation and implicit motivation. Process focused model not only enhances the understanding of psychologists in score validity, but also assist help the psychological investigators to relate disparate subfields. This enhances the unification of the psychology discipline.
How to Assess the Validity of Human Sexuality by Use of the Four Steps Outlined By Bornstein and Test That Can Assess This Construct
Bornstein has outlined a procedure that can be used to assess the validity of any psychological construct. The assessment lays emphasis on operationalization of assessment methods by use of a process focused approach. A psychological variable Construct like human sexuality can be assessed by these procedural outlines. The first step is known as the deconstruct assessment instrument. This step has got two distinct elements. The first one involves specifying the underlying psychological process in human sexuality. In this step of process focused test score, validation of human sexuality is done by specifying the underlying process involved in human sexuality. The underlying process that can alter human sexuality is then identified so as to have a valid assessment of human sexuality. In this step, identification of context variables will also be essential in validating the assessment of human sexuality.
The second step that Bornstein identified as way that can be used in the assessment of a psychological construct such as human sexuality entails operationalization and evaluating process. To determine the assessment validity of human sexuality as a psychological variable, one alters the variables identified in step one into manipulations. This step will also entail delineating the hypothesized outcomes. Finally, the assessment of human sexuality in this step will involve coming up with a comprehensive experimental or research design.
The third step that can be used in the validation of human sexuality assessment involves interpreting the outcome of the assessment. Data collected on human sexuality is interpreted while paying close attention to the restraining circumstances in the assessment process. This is achieved by computing any restrictive condition encountered in the assessment process. To ascertain the validity of human sexuality is attained, a retest design assessment can be carried out. This will help in the identification of altered changes in the human sexuality by the limiting factors.
The fourth step identified by Bornstein as a method of assessing the validity of psychological in procedure focused test involves contextualizing. Data collected about human sexuality is put into context. A limiting condition can involve poor or flawed research design in the assessment process. A flawed research design in the process of assessing the validity of human sexuality will influence the results of an assessment. A flaw in the assessment design is generalized. This will be validated by assessing the human sexuality gained from other populations located in a different environment. In doing this, validity in the assessing human sexuality can to a substantial extent become validated.
Tests That Can Be Used To Test Human Sexuality
Bornstein suggests that to a great extent, the psychological undertakings in which people participate when responding or reacting to psychological constructs such as human sexuality are influenced by the nature of the testing tools or instruments. Testing will thus entail asking people questions regarding human sexuality. Self-attribution tests take the form of questionnaires in which people respond to already written questions regarding their knowledge of human sexuality. People respond by saying if they think the statements in the questionnaire are true or to what extent they think are true. The second test that can be used to assess human sexuality as a construct is known as the stimulus attribution test. In this test respondents are required to deduce vague stimuli. Individuals are requested to attribute meaning to stimuli in this case human sexuality that can have numerous or multiple meaning. The third test that can assess human sexuality is performance based test. This will involve getting sample behavior of human sexuality. The fourth test is constructive test that requires people to give a vivid description of human sexuality without the help of the researcher. This validates human assessment by assessing what people know about this construct.
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