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Chapter 2 Exam – Scarcity and the World of Trade sample essay

CHAPTER 2 Exam – Scarcity and the World of Trade—offs

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)As a student of economics, when you speak of scarcity, you are referring to A)the ability of society to employ all of its resources.
B) the ability of society to consume all that it produces.
C)the inability of society to satisfy all human wants because of limited resources. D)the ability of society to continually make technological breakthroughs and increase production.

2)Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A)As society increases its wealth, the problem of scarcity disappears. B)The factors of production are used to produce outputs that help society satisfy its wants. C)Even though a society faces the problem of scarcity, it does not necessarily suffer from poverty. D)Land and labor are both factors of production.

3)The problem of economic scarcity applies
A)only in industrially developed countries because resources are scarce. B) only in underdeveloped countries because there are no productive resources. C) only in economic systems that are just beginning to develop because specialized resources are scarce.

D)to all economic systems, regardless of their level of development.

4)In every economic system, choices must be made because resources A) are unlimited, but human desires and wants are limited.
B)are limited, but human desires and wants are unlimited.
C)are unlimited, and so are human desires and wants.
D)are limited, and so are human desires and wants.

5)The opportunity cost of going to college might best be described as A)the money that must be paid in order to attend college.
B)the lowest—valued alternative use of the student’s time. C)the highest—valued alternative use of the student’s time. D)the value that the student attaches to not working.

6)In the production of goods and services, trade—offs exist because A)not all production is efficient.
B)society has only a limited amount of productive resources. C)buyers and sellers often must negotiate prices.
D)human wants and needs are limited at a particular point in time.

7)Look at the following production possibilities table for drill presses and corn. The table shows the maximum combination of drills and bushels of corn that can be produced when all resources are fully employed.

Drill Presses1020304050
Corn (bushels)15014012090500

Based on the above information,
A)there is a constant trade—off between corn and drill presses. B)the opportunity cost of producing 30 drill presses instead of 20 drills is 120 bushels of corn. C)the opportunity cost of producing 40 drill presses instead of 30 drills is 30 bushels of corn. D)the production possibilities curve for drill presses and corn will be a straight line.

8)The production possibilities curve represents
A)the maximum amount of labor and capital available to society. B)combinations of goods and services among which consumers are indifferent. C)the maximum combination of goods and services that can be produced with fixed resources and technology, given efficient use of the resources. D)the maximum rate of growth of capital and labor in a country.

9)Which of the following would result in a movement along the production possibilities curve? A)a fall in the unemployment rate
B)growth in the capital stock
C)population growth
D)a change in the composition of two goods that a society chooses to produce

10)One of the assumptions underlying the production possibilities curve is that A) at least one of the factors of production is a free good. B)the quantity of the resources available for the production of economic goods is fixed over a given time period. C)there is at least one factor of production that is employed inefficiently. D)some of the factors of production are not being used.

11)Which of the following statements is NOT an assumption underlying the production possibilities curve? A)Resources are fully and efficiently employed.
B)Technology is fixed.
C)Production occurs over some specified time period.
D)The amount of resources available for production can be changed quickly.

12)If a production possibilities curve for books and magazines is straight, then A)the opportunity cost of increasing book production remains constant regardless of the total quantity produced. B)the opportunity cost of increasing book production continues to decline as total production increases. C)the opportunity cost of increasing book production continues to increase as total production increases. D)the opportunity cost of increasing book production is independent of the shape of the curve.


13)Inthe figure above, point D
A)is less efficient than point C.B) is more efficient than point A. C)is less efficient than point B.D) is more efficient than point B.

14)In the figure above, point E could be obtained if
A) resources were shifted from education to healthcare.
B)resources were used more efficiently.
C)there was an increase in society’s resources.
D)resources were shifted from healthcare to education.

15)In the figure above, the opportunity cost of moving from point B to point C A) is the loss in production in the healthcare sector.
B)is the increase in production in the education sector.
C)is zero.
D)is the loss in production in the education sector.

16)In the figure above, Point A is undesirable because
A)there is an inefficient use of resources.
B)too much healthcare is being produced.
C)the opportunity costs of health care are too high.
D)point E is a more realistic option in this economy.

Table 0201A
Television 212018151160
Personal computers0123456

17)When the economy moves from point D to E in Table 0201A, the opportunity cost of the computer in terms of televisions is A)3.B) 4.C) 2.D) 5.

18)According to Table 0201A, the opportunity cost of each additional computer in terms of televisions A)remains constant.
B)falls as more computers are produced.
C)increases as more computers are produced.
D)is meaningless because the cost of computers cannot be expressed in terms of televisions.

19)Given the production possibilities schedule in Table 0201A, a combination of nine televisions and four personal computers A)is attainable but involves an inefficient use of societies resources. B)would be attainable only if a new technology of producing televisions or computers were introduced. C)is not attainable because it is not listed in the schedule. D)is not attainable because society does not have enough resources to
produce this combination.

20)Given the production possibilities schedule in Table 0201A, a combination of 23 televisions and 6 personal computers A)is attainable but involves the unemployment of some of societies resources. B) clearly illustrates the trade—off between televisions and computers. C)cannot be produced by society, given its current level of resources and production technology. D)can be produced only if society is willing to have some of its resources used inefficiently.

21)If an economy is operating at a point inside the production possibilities curve, then A)society’s resources are being inefficiently utilized.
B)the curve will move to the left.
C)society’s resources are being used to produce too many consumer goods. D)economic policy must retard further growth of the economy.

22)A movement along the production possibilities curve would imply that A) the labor force has grown.
B)productivity has increased.
C)society has chosen a different set of outputs.
D)productivity has declined because workers are demanding more leisure.

23)Which of the following would cause an economy to be producing at a point inside its production possibilities curve? A)the efficient allocation of all factors of production
B)population growth
C)unemployment and an inefficient use of available resources D)capital accumulation

24)A straight line production possibilities curve takes this shape because A) the opportunity cost of producing a good is constant. B)the opportunity cost of producing more of a good is decreasing. C)resources are better suited for producing one output than another. D)resources are fixed.


25)In the figure above, the combination of computers and televisions shown by point X A) is not attainable at the point in time for which the graph is drawn. B)can be attained only if some of societies resources are unemployed. C)suggests that the law of increasing relative costs does not hold. D)results only because society allocates its resources inefficiently.

26)The combination of personal computers and televisions shown in the figure above by point W A)is an efficient use of society’s resources because it is below the production possibilities curve. B)is more desirable than point X because producing at point W does not put a strain on society’s resources. C)is attainable but involves the inefficient use of some of society’s resources. D)is beyond the capacity of society to produce.

27)Which of the following statements about movement along the production possibilities curve in the figure above is FALSE?
A)An additional computer can be produced only if fewer televisions are produced. B)The trade—off between computers and televisions is not constant. C)Society cannot have more of both goods at the same time.

D)There are no opportunity costs involved in choosing one point on the curve over all other points.

28)In the figure above, points U, V. Y, and Z show
A)an inefficient allocation of societies scarce resources.
B)possible combinations of televisions and personal computers. C)a constant trade—off between televisions and personal computers. D)society prefers more televisions than computers.

29)A President of the United States promises to simultaneously produce more defense goods without any decreases in the production of other goods. Under which of the following conditions could such a promise be valid? A)if the U.S. were producing at a point on its production possibilities curve B)if the U.S. were producing inside its production possibilities curve C)if the U.S. were producing to the right of its production possibilities curve
D)none of the above; the production possibilities curve must shift to the right

30)If opportunity costs are constant, then
A)the production possibilities curve does not exist.
B)the production possibilities curve bows outward.
C)the production possibilities curve is a straight line.
D)factors of production must not be fully employed.

31)The production possibilities curve bows outward because
A)opportunity costs are decreasing as the production of a good increases. B)opportunity costs are increasing as the production of a good increases. C)opportunity costs are fixed as the production of a good increases. D)resources are of uniform quality.

32)One type of factor of production is physical capital. All of the following are examples ofphysical capital EXCEPT A)buildings B) machinery
C)AM/FM radiosD) a hydroelectric power plant

33)A country that must reduce current consumption to increase future consumption possibilities A)must be allocating resources inefficiently.
B)must be producing along the production possibilities curve. C)must be producing outside the production possibilities curve. D)must not have private ownership of property.

34)Which of the following statements about economic scarcity is FALSE? A)Scarcity occurs among the poor and the rich.
B)Scarcity only occurs if there are shortages and people waiting in line to buy things. C)Scarcity results from not having enough resources to produce all the things we want. D)Scarcity results in the necessity to make choices.

35)Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A)Economic goods are available in desired quantities at a zero price. B)A good is anything that gives satisfaction or happiness to individuals.
C)Services are intangible goods such as dry cleaning, hospital care, and restaurant meal preparation. D)Wants are unlimited and include all material and nonmaterial desires.

36)Ineconomic terminology, when a resource is used to produce output it is referred to as A)an intangible.B) a factor of production.
C)a service. D) a fifth element.

37)Opportunity cost is defined as
A)the value of the next—best alternative that must be sacrificed to attain a want. B)the least—cost means to produce output.
C)the value of the output currently received by an individual or a corporation. D)the return from a given unit of labor.

38)One opportunity cost associated with going to college is A) purchasing text books.
B)paying tuition.
C)giving up employment possibilities while in college.
D)paying for room, board, and other living expenses.

39)A production possibilities curve with clothing and food on the axes shows that I. A society can not have an unlimited amount of each good
II.For an efficient society, an increase in clothing production will necessitate a decrease in food production III. A society will always produce the maximum amount of both clothing and food

A) I onlyB) II onlyC) III onlyD) Both I and II

40)A straight—line production possibilities curve has
A)an increasing opportunity cost between the two goods.
B)a decreasing opportunity cost between the two goods.
C)a constant opportunity cost between the two goods.
D)no opportunity cost between the two goods.

41)A point outside a society’s production possibilities curve is one which
is A) unattainable given the resources of the society.
B)technologically inefficient.
C)undesirable given the implied underemployment of resources. D)desirable since it satisfies the desires of the population.

42)A point inside a society’s production possibilities curve represents A)an unattainable combination of outputs.
B)an output combination which satisfies the needs of the population. C)an underutilization of productive resources.
D)a technically superior output combination.

43)It is correct to state that a society which is on its production possibilities curve is A) underutilizing is resources.
B)technologically inefficient.
C)consuming too much output.
D)fully utilizing its productive resources.

44)Technology is defined as
A)the maximum output which can be attained from a stock of physical capital. B)society’s pool of applied knowledge concerning the production of goods and services. C)output beyond the production possibilities boundary.

D)the utilization of the most advanced machinery.

45)Efficiency can correctly be defined as
A)producing outside the production possibilities boundary.
B)minimizing opportunity cost.
C)producing the maximum output with given technology and resources. D)providing for the immediate needs of the greatest proportion of the population.

46)The law of increasing opportunity cost implies that
A)producing additional units of one good results in proportionately smaller reductions in output of the other good. B)producing additional units of one good results in increasing amounts of lost output of the other good. C)the production possibilities curve will be a straight line. D)the society will be producing on its production possibilities curve.

47)A bowed production possibilities curve is consistent with A) an unchanged opportunity cost.
B)a technologically inefficient society.
C)the underutilization of productive resources.
D)highly specialized resources.

48)A bowed outward production possibilities curve occurs when A)opportunity costs are constant.
B) resources are not scarce.
C)additional units of output of one good necessitate increased reductions in the other good. D)the society is operating on the production possibilities curve.

49)Comparative advantage implies choosing that activity which A)has a high opportunity cost.
B)is inside the production possibilities frontier.
C)has the lowest opportunity cost.
D)does not demand any specialization.

50)If individual X has comparative advantage in painting and individual Y has comparative advantage in carpentry, then A)individual X must use fewer hours to paint a fence than individual Y. B)individual Y will specialize in painting.

C)there is a lower opportunity cost (expressed in units of carpentry) for individual X to paint than for individual Y to paint. D)specialization will not occur, since each does not have a clear absolute advantage.

51)Which of the following statements about scarcity is TRUE? A)Scarcity is no longer a problem for industrialized countries. B)Scarcity exists in all societies.
C)Scarcity is a problem only for greedy people.
D)Scarcity is a problem only in countries that do not use markets to organize economic activity.

52)In 1992 hurricanes damaged parts of Florida, Louisiana, and Hawaii, destroying homes, businesses, schools, and infrastructure. In strictly economic terminology, these hurricanes are said to have caused A)scarcity, because the damages made food and shelter scarce. B)scarcity, because some goods were difficult to get.

C)shortages, because supplies were cut off and goods were destroyed. D)absolute advantages, because some areas of the country were damaged when others were not.

53)The difference between scarcity and a shortage is
A)scarcity is caused by poverty and shortages are caused by natural disasters. B)shortages are a type of scarcity caused by natural disasters while scarcity is caused by human errors. C)scarcity always is a part of human life while shortages usually are temporary. D)shortages are always part of human life while scarcity is usually temporary.

54)Human resources that perform the functions of organizing, managing, and assembling the other factors of production are called A)physical capital.B) venture capital.
C)entrepreneurship.D) productive capital.

55)Services can be thought of as
A)unvalued goods.B) unwanted goods.
C)free goods. D) intangible goods.

56)Scarcity implies that people must
A)be miserable.B) be selfish.C) make choices.D) not be selfish.

57)Opportunity cost is
A)the intrinsic value of an economic good.
B)the total value of all the alternatives forsaken when a choice is made.
C)the value of the opportunity selected when a need is satisfied. D)the value of the next highest—ranked alternative that must be sacrificed to obtain a want.

58)Suppose you have four choices–go to a movie, read a book, watch television, or go to a concert. You choose to go to a movie. The opportunity cost of the movie is A)the value of the book not read.

B)the value of the television program not watched.
C)the value of the concert that you didn’t attend.
D)the value of the activity that you would have selected if you hadn’t gone to the movie.

59)Fred and Ann both decide to see the same movie when they are given free tickets to the movie. We know that A)both bear an opportunity cost since they could have done other things instead of see the movie. B)both bear the same opportunity cost since they are doing the same thing. C)the cost of going to the movie is greater for the one who had more choices to do other things. D)neither bear an opportunity cost because the tickets were free.

60)Opportunity costs are
A)objective because they can always be put in monetary terms. B)objective because specific things are given up when making a choice. C)subjective because each person decides the value of the foregone alternative. D)subjective because it is impossible to put a monetary value on foregone alternatives.

61)Bill Bonecrusher graduates from college with a choice of playing professional football at $2 million a year or coaching for $50,000 a year. He decides to play football, but eight years later he quits football to make movies for $3 million a year. His opportunity cost at graduation was and eight years later was

A)$50,000; $2 millionB) $2 million; $2 million
C)$2 million; $3 millionD) $50,000; $50,000


62)A farmer has 200 acres of land on which he can grow soybeans or corn. An acre of land yields 200 bushels of soybeans or 100bushels of corn. The figure above refers to the farmer’s A)production possibilities curve.B) substitution options curve. C)trade—offs curve. D) opportunity cost curve,

63)If the farmer is producing 5000 bushels of soybeans at point B in the figure above, we know that A)the farmer is not using his resources efficiently.
B)the farmer is using his land to produce a crop other than soybeans or corn. C) the farmer must be using more land than was used in constructing the production possibilities curve.
D)the farmer is using his resources efficiently.

64)In the figure above, how many units of corn are produced at point a?

D)We can’t tell without more information

65)A point outside a production possibilities curve indicates A)that resources are not being used efficiently.
B)an output combination that society cannot attain given its current level of resources and technology. C)that resources are being used very efficiently.
D)that both goods are characterized by increasing costs.


66)In the figure above, which of the following points indicates the
efficient use of resources? A) a B)f C)g D) h

67)The shape of the production possibilities curve in the figure above indicates that A)production of corn is characterized by increasing costs while the production of cloth is characterized by decreasing costs. B)production of both corn and cloth is characterized by increasing costs. C)production of both corn and cloth is characterized by constant costs. D) production of corn is characterized by constant costs and the production of cloth is characterized by increasing costs.

68)Between points b and c in the figure above, the opportunity cost of another bushel ofcorn is

A)1 yard of cloth. B) 1.25 yards of cloth.
C)1.5 yards of cloth.D) 2.5 yards of cloth.

69)Which of the following would NOT allow society to move to point h in the figure above? A)an improvement in technology
B)more efficient use of resources of current resources
C)an increase in quantity of labor
D)an increase in quantity of capital

70)The law of increasing relative costs is due to
C)the fact that it is more difficult to use resources efficiently the more society produces. D)the fact that resources not are perfectly adaptable for alternative uses.

71)If a country’s production possibilities curve gets more bowed out over time, it is an indication that A)technological change has taken place.
B)society is learning to use its resources more efficiently. C)the quantity of labor and capital have increased.
D)resources have become more highly specialized.

72)If all resources were perfectly adaptable for alternative uses, the production possibilities curve would A)be bowed out. B) be bowed in.
C)be a straight line.D) not exist.

73)Economic growth can be pictured in a production possibilities curve diagram by A)making the production possibilities curve more bowed out. B)making the production possibilities curve less bowed out. C)shifting the production possibilities curve out.

D)shifting the production possibilities curve in.

74)The opportunity cost of more capital goods today is
A) fewer capital goods in the future.
B)fewer consumer goods in the future.
C)fewer consumer goods today.
D)more unemployed resources in the future.

75)Suppose an acre of land yields 100 bushels of corn and that one bushel of corn provides enough seed for one-quarter of an acre of land. The opportunity cost of consuming another bushel of corn today is

A)100 bushels of corn next year.B) 25 bushels of corn next year. C)10 bushels of corn next year. D) 2.5 bushels of corn next year.

76)Whenever a society forgoes current consumption to invest in capital goods, A) the less the society can consume next year.
B)the easier it will be for the society to consume less in the future because people will become accustomed to less.

C)the more the society can consume in the future.
D)the less capital the society can produce in the future.

77)Generally, specialization leads to
A)constant opportunity costs.
B)greater productivity.
C)the production of fewer capital goods.
D)greater self—reliance.

78)A person has a comparative advantage in an activity whenever she A) has an absolute advantage in the activity.
B)can perform the activity at a lower opportunity cost than can another person. C)can do the activity in less time than anyone else.
D)can do everything better than anyone else.

79)Comparative advantage is always a(n)concept.
A)absoluteB) efficiencyC) relativeD) monetary

80)If you can make $20,000 a year teaching, $25,000 a year typing, $30,000 a year driving a cab, and $40,000 a year as a chef, you have a comparative advantage in A)teaching.
B)driving a cab.
C)being a chef.
D)one of them but we need more information to know which.

81)Division of labor refers to
A)dividing tasks up into several subtasks and having one person perform these subtasks in a certain order. B)the separation of hourly workers from salaried workers.
C)assigning different workers to different tasks.
D)separating union workers from nonunion workers.

82)Division of labor increases the output of society by
A)eliminating scarcity.
B)reducing the choices people have to make to a more manageable number. C) ensuring that people are happier in performing their work. D)allowing resources to specialize in the tasks for which they have a comparative advantage.

83)Which of the following are considered factors of production? I.Land
III.Physical capital

A)I and II only B) I and III only
C)I, II and III onlyD) I, II, III and IV

84)In economic terminology, the accumulated training and education that workers receive that increases their productivity is referred to as A)entrepreneurship.B) human capital.
C)labor. D) physical capital.

85)The division of productive activities among persons and regions so that no one individual or area is totally self—sufficient is known as

A)advantage-taking.B) comparative value.
C)specialization.D) out—sourcing.

86)Assume that Economy A and Economy B have the same resources, but that individuals in Economy A have specialized whereas individuals in Economy B have not. Given this information, you can determine that A)Economy A will have a higher output than Economy B.

B)Economy A will have a lower output than Economy B.
C)Economy A and Economy B will have identical outputs.
D)individuals in Economy A will have lower incomes than individuals in Economy

87)When nations specialize in their areas of comparative advantage and then trade with the rest of the world, the result is that A)the average standard of living in the world will go down. B) the average standard of living in the world will go up. C)the world will move from a point on the production possibilities curve to a point inside the curve. D)worldwide economic efficiency will decrease.

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