Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) sample essay
According to the documentation in Misunderstoodmind, “Math disabilities can arise at nearly any stage of a child’s scholastic development. While very little is known about the neurobiological or environmental causes of these problems, many experts attribute them to deficits in one or more of five different skill types”. These deficits can exist independently of one another or can occur in combination. All can impact a child’s ability to progress in mathematics. Many students, despite a good understanding of mathematical concepts are inconsistent at computing. They make errors because they misread signs or carry numbers incorrectly, or may not write numerals clearly enough or in the correct column. These students often struggle, especially in primary school, where basic computation and “right answers” are stressed.
Often they end up in remedial classes, even though they might have a high level of potential for higher-level mathematical thinking. Electronic Learning (E-Learning) includes all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching, which are procedural in character and aim to effect of knowledge with reference to individual experience, practice, and knowledge of the learner. E-Learning is essentially the computer and network enable transfer of skills and knowledge. E-Learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer based learning, virtual education and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio.
Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) refers to instruction or remediation presented on a computer. Many educational computer programs are available online and from computer stores and textbook companies. They enhance teacher instruction in several ways. Computer programs are interactive and can illustrate a concept through attractive animation, sound, and demonstration. They allow students to progress at their own pace and work individually or problem solve in a group. Computers provide immediate feedback, letting students know whether their answer is correct. If the answer is not correct, the program shows students how to correctly answer the question.
Presented with this development, the proponents intend to propose to develop an Electronic Learning (E-Learning) in mathematics to the interest of the students of STI College Sta. Maria and helping them to make preschool mathematics more enjoyable and interesting.
1.2 Problem Statement
1.2.1 General Problem
How will the proponents develop an Electronic Learning (E-Learning) in Mathematics subject for Pre-school of Parada Elementary School that will help the Pre-school students to learn in a fun way. 1.2.2 Specific Problem
* How will the proponents create a system that can provide an effective lesson by integrating graphics, animation and sounds. The use of traditional teaching method to present the Mathematics subject causes boredom for the students on learning Mathematics. Students find it hard to learn and cope up with the traditional method of teaching. * How will the proponents incorporate subject outline based on the topics in Mathematics. Contradiction of lesson may occur if the system is not based on the school curriculum for mathematics. Without incorporating curriculum based Mathematics topics, certain school violations will be encountered by the proponents such as straying from the Mathematics curriculum of the school.
* How will the proponents create a webpage wherein the student will be able to cope up with the lesson even if he/she fails to attend the class. There are students who sometimes fail to attend their classes in school. However, repeating the entire lesson discussed the other day is a problem. Those students who failed to attend are having hard time how they would cope of to the lesson and lectures. There are also circumstances wherein the teacher itself fails to attend the class. * How will the proponents create a security for the back-end of system that can prevent unauthorized access to the system. A security for the back-end is needed to prevent unauthorized person from accessing the system. Unauthorized person can modify the data of the system that can cause a system breakdown.
1.2 Proposed Research Project
1.2.1 General Objectives
To develop an E-Learning in Mathematics for Pre-school of Parada Elementary School that will help the Pre-school students to learn in a fun way.
1.2.2 Specific Objectives
* To create module that can provide an effective lesson by integrating graphics.
With the use of different software’s and applications in developing system such as Dreamweaver, Adobe Photoshop for designing, Adobe FlashCS4 for animation, Audio editing software for the sounds and effects. * To be able to incorporate subject outline based on the topics in Mathematics. With the use of lesson plan and book that serves as a reference and guidelines for the proposed system it will avoid the contradiction between subject outline to the computerized tutorial system.
* To create a website wherein the student will be able to cope up with the lesson even if he/she fails to attend the class. The proponents will create a lesson page that will include the lectures and discussion. This gives the student the privilege to cope up with the lesson. This also enables them to study in advance for a specific lesson in order for them to participate in the class.
* To be able to create a security for the back-end of system that can prevent unauthorized access to the system. To prevent unauthorized person from accessing the system, the proponents will create a user level that can give access to authorized person only. In this way we will prevent unauthorized person in accessing information in the system.
1.2.3 Scope and Limitation
The proposed system will focus on the subject Mathematics. This system will serve as a learning tool for the preschool that will help to increase the interest of the students in learning Mathematics. The whole scope of the system focuses on the outline based of the lesson. It is important that the system will not go far from the subject because the student will be confused in studying the lesson. The system is useful for instruction or remediation because it presents the problems that the student answers.
The question can be in a form of multiple choices. If the answer is correct; the student is usually rewarded with a “Great Job!” or an animated response on the computer screen. If the answer is not correct, the computer will demonstrates the correct answer on the given problem in the exercises. The system is not intended to be a subject but intended for motivating the students in increasing their interest in this subject. The proposed system will not compute the grade of the student based on their score on the exercises. The system is especially made and best suited to the methods of teaching in Mathematics for Pre-school in Parada Elementary School and there will be no other incorporated subject.
This is the first page of the system when the user opens the webpage. It is also called sometimes the ‘start page’.
In order to enter to the next page of the system the user must click the open button.
This button will take the user back to the previous page if he/she wants.
This brings the user to the next page where has a chapter list. And this chapter list page link to the Lesson Page.
This button helps the user to view the tutorial videos.
This is a button link to the exercises page.
The proponents will use the Fourth Generation Technique (4GT) in developing the system. The Fourth Generation Technique is based on NPL that is the Non- Procedural Language techniques. Based upon in the specifications made, the 4GT approaches uses various tools for the automatic generation of source codes. It is the vital tool which uses the NPL for Report generation, Database query, Manipulation of data, Interaction of screen, Definition, Generation of code, Spread Sheet capabilities, High level graphical capacity etc. The Fourth Generation Techniques
Requirement Gathering Phase
It is gathering information by interviewing the beneficiary and research through internet or recent thesis as reference. This is the first phase where used to gather information to complete the Electronic Learning for Parada Elementary School. This requires complete information to know ahead the purpose of making CAI and to know the entire possible problem that the proponents may face. In gathering data, the proponents went to Parada Elementary School to give the letter of recommendation straight to their principal and after the letter was given, the proponents explained the benefits that they can get from the proposed system to their school, to the student and teachers who are teaching mathematics in preschool.
The proponents also made an interview with Mr. Narciso L. Diño the School principal and Ms. Edlyn Gumafelix. The school gave information regarding the history of their school, total number of students and the proponents also asked for references that may help to build the system. Research was also done at the library of STI College Sta. Maria regarding the use of E-Learning for mathematics.
Design / Strategy Phase
Compiled information gathered from the interview and references. In this phase were able to plan, analyze and create a design for the proposed system. Through this by the use of the data gathered to plan and create a system. This is where the proponents create and explores to meet the requirements of the proposed system. The developers used PHP as the programming language, Adobe Photoshop for the design, images and environment of the system and Adobe Flash for the animation.
Implementation using 4GL
Start encoding of gathered data for the lessons tutorials and other content all gathered data to the system for the system to function and make sure that the specific objectives are met before testing phase begins. Implementation of all gathered information is needed to develop the proposed system. The proponents used the Dreamweaver/PHP to create a code and module for the system.
Once the software is implemented in machine executable form it will be tested to know some error or defects in function. In this phase, the proponents test the system if all the specified objectives are met. After the implementation the proponents test every function of the system to find out the flaws and problems in the system, also looked for things that could improve the system until not all the objectives are met and system problems are not resolve the proponents continue the testing and improvement of the proposed system.
3.0 Data Gathering Procedures and Output
Data gathering is one of the most critical stages that must be performed. This is because the analysis of the current system will be based on the kind of the information gathered. In order to gather all the data necessary in the study, the proponents used several ways on collecting data. This helps the proponents to gather all the information needed in developing the system.
The proponents conducted group study to learn more about the proposed system. They found materials in the library that may help them. They used thesis documentation of the previews student for data comparison. Using the information they have gathered the proponents will increase their knowledge to build the proposed system. As a result, the proponents will now generate some ideas on how their own the system will be developed. Also they will use this information to create their own documentation.
The proponents also conducted research in the World Wide Web. They used internet to do this kind of research that may help them in terms, methods and new technologies to build the proposed system. Also they research some tutorials that may improve their skills that will help them to finish the system. As a result the proponents use some information that is reliable and useful. They now have some tutorials to study from the web to create on animation for the proposed system.
The proponents also conducted interview to particular person of the school that helped them gain some information to finish the proposed system. As a result, the proponents now know what will be the flow of the system. Through this knowledge the proponents started developing the system.
The proponents use the gathered information to create the proposed system. Although the development stage starts the proponents will continue gathering information that may contribute to the development of the system. The output of this development will satisfy the needs of the beneficiary. The proponents will create and effective system.
4.0 Documentation of the Current System
Formal education started in 1902 with the Kartilya and the chapel as classroom. With a pioneer teacher were average pupils who had to be fetched into their homes. As time go by the people realized the need and importance of education. New ideas then generated and substantiated and the dream of a one room school house. Later on they took over greater strides in its march to progress and the one teacher barrio school became a complete primary school.
The achievement motivated barrio folks through the dim days of war crisis marched into full development of its home industries. Poultry and garment factories cropped up and the increasingly marked progress gave way to the completion of an elementary school. That was 1947, when the rehabilitation, reconstruction and development were under done through the combined cooperative efforts of the barrio people and with the leadership of Head Teacher. It was at this period when intermediate building and additional rooms for primary classes were constructed.
Parada Elementary School headed by Mr. Narciso L. Diňo. They are using the traditional approach of teaching using books, visual aids and interactive discussion of lessons inside the classroom. The teachers make use of the traditional method of teaching such as board, chalk, cartolina, chart, manila paper and cardboard as visual aids that takes a lot of time and effort that’s why the students were getting bored.
There are 70 students in preschool and it is divided by two sections; the morning section and the afternoon section. The students meet five times a week and everyday they have a flag ceremony and exercise before they go to their designated room. Every student must go their designated room with the guidance of their respected adviser. When they arrive, the teacher checks the attendance. The teacher will finish the lesson according to the scope of the lesson plan. The teachers also conduct lectures, exercises and exam to further improve the knowledge of the students.
There are five subjects for Preschool in Parada Elementary School these are Filipino, Exploring Math, Writing, Getting Smart to Language and Worksheets on Readiness Skills. They do not have a grading system. Instead of cards, they used a checklist for the attendance of the students. The student must know how to write their names and know how to count from one to ten before entering Pre-school.
Online E-Learning in Mathematics for Pre-school is designed mainly to demonstrate concepts, instruct, and remediate student errors and misunderstandings in preschool. Some programs are useful for teaching basic skills in Math. Many entertaining computer mathematics games encourage students to learn while enjoying the experience. Other programs are useful for instruction or remediation because they present problems that the student answers. The online system will be beneficial for students in reviewing their lessons at home and it is also be beneficial in monitoring the status level of the students who understand the lesson.
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