| Conflicts in Inter-Racial Relationships Essay
In the scope of this research paper it is important to rely on the cultural and racial stereotypes, which are commonly recognized all over the world – in order to outline the core aspects of interracial and cross-cultural relations. Charles Mitchell (2000) defines the cultural stereotype notion as the way of human interaction in the social groups. Stereotype consists of the cultural mores of a society and in the majority of cases, it is narrowed to the particular region. The core objective of the stereotype is formulation of the standardized image of a particular group in order to assign to this group a number of specific characteristics.
After taking into account the components and specific features of the culture, it is possible to construct the accurate behavior model, which would be inherent to the representatives of a particular social group (race minorities etc). That is why it is possible to say that the main purpose of stereotypes is simplification of personal behavior pattern developing in the cases of cross-cultural contacts and collaboration with the business partners from other countries (cultural environments).
It is obvious that all the stereotypes have their exceptions and cannot cover all areas of human activities because each person is individual with his/her own life values and approaches towards the standard life situations.
At the same time, it is important to put an emphasis on the fact that the core success factor in the effective cross-cultural communication is avoidance of the blind following of the commonly recognized stereotypes. In addition, the behavior of the individual may be evaluated in accordance to ones individual features and in the light of the cultural context of a particular environment and personality. It is obvious that there are still independent-minded Japanese, shallow Russians and task-driven Arabs, but there are the exceptions from these general trends. In some cases, the unusual behavior (which does not match the stereotypes) of such people in their natural environment may be even considered as the fact of rebellion to their culture.
There is a general trend of the cultural features stereotyping, which is mainly applied to the large social groups or even to the entire societies. At the same time, on the one-to-one communication level, this trend may fail and the personal characteristics wont follow the prescribed type of behavior. It is obvious that everyone in the process of cross-cultural interrelation applies the stereotypes of the business partners behavior, in order to understand and predict it. At the same time, it is important to pay additional attention to the fact that the business partner also considers you in the light of the commonly applied stereotypes of your nation.
Mitchell has made a statement that the stereotype itself is not a negative tool for the cross-cultural communication improvement because the process of forming the stereotype implies the deep analysis of the core features of the foreign culture. That is why the possibility of managing the cross-cultural complexities occurs. The important feature of stereotypes, which has been also outlined by Mitchell, is their ability of evolving. That, in turn, means that the stereotypes may be applied for the Cultural Revolution tracing in both cases when the culture has been stereotyped and when the stereotype has formed the culture and its traditions.
As an evident example, Mitchell considers the Western approach case towards Japanese cultural traditions and their special features, which are not inherent to the Western lifestyle. Before the1930-s, Japanese people have been considered by Westerns as the mysterious, backward and quaint. After the Second World War, the approach has been radically changed and the Japanese have become fanatic evil conquerors out to dominate in the world.
During the Cold War events, Japanese were considered as the anti-communistic allies in the Asian region. After the end of the Cold War, the representatives of the Japanese nation have been mainly associated with the superefficient workers, employees and inventors. In addition, the set of stories about the global success was related to the Japanese people. Finally, the representatives of this nation and their mental and technological achievements have been referred as the huge competitor for the US and for the entire American interests.
While taking into account the situation in the late 1990, at that time Japan experienced the recession. That is why the outmoded approach towards doing business had its negative impact on the entire economy of the country. This historical period does not refer the representatives of the Japanese nation as to the competitors. More that, there has even been some rate of compassion from the foreign partners towards the representatives of the Japanese business.
It is obvious that the behavior of the business partners should be considered in the light of their cultural traditions. That is why practical application of the existing stereotypes may be used as the pattern of the traditional behavior of the representatives of some particular countries.
The importance of the cross-cultural differences` knowledge is urgent in the following aspects of doing business. First, it is the market investigation – planning whether the particular product satisfies the demand of the consumers of a particular county or not.
It is important to pay additional attention to the fact that the core aspects of the cross-cultural differences imply the subtle and not-so-subtle differences within the frames of the culture and nation. According to the practice, the aspects of etiquette and cuisine do not limit these differences, because they also imply the psychological aspects of the national behavior. Language is an obvious aspect of the cross-cultural difference, but it also implies such factors as religion, psychology, time and philosophy of a particular nation. Business may be considered as one more specific ethnical feature of the country, because it outlines its core values in the light of human relations and economical aspect of the collaboration with people. That is why the failure to take the set of cross-cultural differences into account while starting the collaboration with the representatives of the foreign countries (who are living in different cultural environments) can have a high cost for the business entity, its image and effectiveness of its activity in a whole.
While relying on the practice, the impact of the cross cultural and interracial interrelations on the human life would be outlined in the light of invisible glass ceiling and its impact on the employment of minorities.
In order to develop the theme of influence of the invisible glass ceiling on the working place, it is important to rely on the background of this notion. According to the economical point of view, the glass ceiling is the unseen, yet unbreachable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements.”
That is why the next issue to be outlined in this research paper is the human rights violation – race and gender problems.
In order to develop the topic, considering the race and gender differences and interrelation between these two notions, it is important to outline the background of each notion. Usually, race is considered as the humans classification in accordance with the factors of appearance, which are mainly based on heritable phenotypical characteristics or geographic ancestry. In nowadays social science, gender is considered as the social sex, behavior of an individual in some social conditions. Also, this notion is applied in the case of the sexual inequality discussion.
Racism is a complicated projection of the ethnic conflict, which covers all areas of human activities and creates the preconditions for total discrimination of the minorities by other representatives of the society. Scholars outline the ethnic conflict/problem/war as the conflict, which occurs between the ethnic groups and is mainly based on the ethnic nationalism issues. The main interest to the ethnic conflicts is caused by their wide popularity after the Cold War and also because they lead to such outcomes as genocide or other types of war crimes.
According to the point of view, developed by Evelyn Nakano Glenn, it is possible to say that race and gender are interrelated notions and at the same time, additional attention in the social life development has been paid to the gender issues. Also, it is important to make an emphasis that initially gender has been discussed in the light of white women and to the race in the light of black men. So it is evident that women of color have not been taken into consideration.
The next important issue, which has been investigated by Evelyn Nakano Glenn, is that globalization process itself has made a great contribution to the gender and race issues development. As an example, in many well-developed countries there is a lack of labor force and this demand is fulfilled by the immigrants from the third-world countries. In addition, there is such a notion as international transference of mothering, which means that women from poor countries come to well-developed countries in order to be employed as nannies and teachers for treating and educating children of the local middle-class population.
Such a situation has improved the attitude towards racial issues, but at the same time, the gender aspect of these people is not improved, because their social status has not been changed. That is why it is possible to make a conclusion that the factor of invisible glass ceiling takes its place in this type of situations and makes the negative impact on the situation development.
As one more scientific approach towards gender and race issues, which should be discussed, is the Unruly Immigrants by Monisha Das Gupta. That is why the social constructionist approach towards understanding of rights, activism and transnational South Asian policies in the United States would be outlined.
Generally, social constructs are understood as the by-products of countless human choices rather than laws resulting from divine will or nature. The author has made an emphasis on the urgency of documenting the South Asian contributions to movements for social transformation. One of the main reasons for that was that the women of color have not been provided even with an opportunity for participation in the scientific research processes (their knowledge and skills in this case have not been taken into consideration). In Unruly Immigrants the author has outlined theethnographic account of the challenge, which has been made by radical recent immigrants to the neo-liberal political order in North America. The author considers that because of the globalization processes, the new political subjects have been created in the US. These subjects need to be recognized and provided with the rights of social protection, right to safety, “good work”, and freedom of movement across the borders. In other words, there is a demand of transnational immigrant rights.
Also, it is important to emphasize that according to the authors point of view, the gender, race and sexuality have been denaturalized during the last three decades. That has led to the position that we can see them as principles that organize power relations in society. The author considers that there is a need of properly-developed immigrant bill of rights because current one is the thrust of the immigrants’ needs, but not wishful variant for their life and safety protection.
Finally, it is important to emphasize that Das Gupta persuades the readers that documentation of struggles is the key success factor for challenging contemporary inequities in the social life, but it is not effective for arguing for a transnational complex of rights over the citizenship rights. It is possible to say that Das Gupta would subscribe to a social constructionist approach towards understanding rights, activism and transnational south Asian politics in the United States because the main emphasis in the social constructivism is made on importance of culture and context in understanding social life and in constructing knowledge, based on this understanding.
To conclude it is important to pay additional attention to the fact that evaluation of an individual due to his/her belonging to the minority group or due to his/her gender and racial characteristics cannot be considered as an ethical and as an economically effective approach towards human resource management.
In order to be successful, companies should apply the approach, which implies the evaluation of the real achievements, skills and abilities of an individual, while making the decision concerning ones career development. It is important to emphasize that the cross-cultural interrelation in the multinational social group should take into account all aspects of the human behavior and should remind about the experience of the previous generations in the racism, gender issues and other types of discrimination and their outcomes.
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