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Constitutional Development Essay

News has been defined differently by different experts. Some of the definitions are given below:

1. News is anything out of the ordinary 2. News is the unusual picture of life. 3. News is anything that people talk about; the more it excites the greater its value. , 4. News comprises all current activities which are of general human interest and the best news is that which interests most of the reader*. 5. Anything that enough people want to read is news provided it does not violate the canons of good taste and the law of libel. 6. News is like a hot cake coming straight from oven.

7. News is the report of an event that is fresh, unusual and which is interesting to a greater number of people. From these definitions we are now clear to have understood the elements of news. Let’s see what these are.

Objectivity

News is the factual report of an event. What the reporter sees is supposed to report. Objectivity means to report the facts exactly the same way as they occurred. It goes against objectivity if the reporter adds something from his own imagination. Comment/suggestion or proposal is not the task of a news reporter. These are considered right in a column, editorial, etc. In these formats of journalistic writings the writer can provide in-depth and background information. In simplest words objectivity means just to report the tip of the iceberg and leave the rest to analytical and in-depth reporting. It will not be an objective reporting if the reporter wants to angle, slant or shade the news.

Introduction Of News Values

News values are general guidelines or criteria used by media outlets, such as newspapers or broadcast media, to determine how much prominence to give to a story. They are fundamental to understanding news production and the choices that editors and other journalists face when deciding that one piece of information is news while another is not. According to former Times and Sunday Times Editor, Harold Evans, a news story… … Is about necessary information and unusual events

… Should be based on observable facts
… Should be an unbiased account
… Should be free from the reporter’s opinion

However, the selection of news stories is subject to a wider range of influences than this simple basic definition. News values is about examining the process of selecting news sources, and how news

Values inform the process.

News values, sometimes called “news criteria,” are commonly held to be active at several stages in the gate keeping process. First, they supposedly make a story or event more likely to be chosen as news (the “selection” hypothesis). Second, they’re said to be underscored, or even exaggerated when a news story is written (the “distortion” hypothesis), and finally, they are purportedly further emphasized as a news item passes through each stage of the Production process.

A variety of external and internal pressures influence journalists’ decisions on which stories are covered, how issues are interpreted and the emphasis given to them. These pressures can sometimes lead to bias or unethical reporting. Achieving relevance, giving audiences the news they want and find interesting, is an increasingly important goal for media outlets seeking to maintain market share in a rapidly evolving market. This has made news organizations more open to audience input and feedback, and forced them to adopt and apply news values that attract and keep audiences Some news organizations use the term ‘News Values’ to describe a different concept: the ethical standards expected of journalists in their work.

These ground rules spell out the good practice journalists should apply as they gather and process news stories. They are simply a code of ethics or canons of good and responsible journalism. These guidelines attempt to ensure the integrity of the journalist and guarantee the reliability of the news story. Both professional journalism associations and individual news organizations often make these rules freely available so that the public may know what to expect from their journalists. The BBC lists the following values:

• Truth and accuracy
• Impartiality and diversity of opinion
• Editorial integrity and independence
• Serving the public interest
• Fairness
• Balancing the right to report with respect for privacy
• Balancing the right to report with protection of the vulnerable
• Safeguarding children
• Being accountable to the audience

History

In 1965, media researchers Galtung & Ruge analysed international news stories to find out what factors they had in common, and what factors placed them at the top of the news agenda worldwide. In 1965, media researchers Galtung & Ruge analysed international news stories to find out what factors they had in common, and what factors placed them at the top of the news agenda worldwide. They came up with the following list of news values. – a kind of scoring system – a story which scores highly on each value is certain to come at the start of a TV news bulletin, or make the front page of a newspaper. Journalists and editors also draw heavily on their experience – of what an audience expects, of what stories have had a major impact on public consciousness in the past, of what is important – and each news organisation will have their own system of setting a news agenda. Galtung and Ruge, in their seminal study in the area put forward a system of twelve factors describing events that together are used as a definition of ‘newsworthiness’.

Focusing on newspapers and broadcast news, Galtung and Ruge devised a list describing what they believed were significant contributing factors as to how the news is constructed. Their theory argues that the more an event accessed these criteria the more likely it was to be reported on in a newspaper. Furthermore, three basic hypotheses are presented by Galtung and Ruge: the additivity hypothesis that the more factors an event satisfies, the higher the probability that it becomes news; the complementarity hypothesis that the factors will tend to exclude each other; and the exclusion hypothesis that events that satisfy none or very few factors will not become news Gatlung and Ruge introduces the major factors related to news values as explain under Gatlung And Ruge, 1973

* Relevance – How relevant is a news story to the audience in question? For example, a California earthquake is almost always more relevant to a West Coast audience than to an audience in Calcutta. * Timeliness – How recently did the event unfold? Timing is of the utmost importance in today’s 24 hour news cycle. Recent events, or events in the making, are most likely to lead the news. * Simplification – Stories that can be easily simplified or summarized are likely to be featured more prominently than stories that are convoluted or difficult to understand. * Predictability – Certain events, such as elections, major sporting events, astrological events, and legal decisions, happen on a predictable schedule. As the event draws closer, it typically gains news value. * Unexpectedness – On the other hand, events like natural disasters, accidents, or crimes are completely unpredictable. These events are also likely to have significant news value.

* Continuity – Some events, such as war, elections, protests, and strikes, require continuing coverage. These events are likely to remain in the news for a long time, although not always as the lead story. * Composition – Editors have to keep in mind the big picture—the sum of all content in their media outlet. For this reason, an editor might select soft human interest stories to balance out other hard hitting, investigative journalism. * Elite People – Certain individuals, like politicians, entertainers, and athletes, are considered, by virtue of their status, more newsworthy. If someone throws a shoe at an everyday person, it’s probably not news. If someone throws a shoe at the President of the United States, it will likely be in the news for weeks. * Elite Countries – Famine, drought, and national disasters are more likely to draw attention if they are happening in “First World” countries than if they are happening in developing countries. * Negativity – Generally speaking, editors deem bad news more newsworthy than good news.

Shoemaimker Et Al., 1987

* Timeliness – Shoemaker et al. also recognize timeliness as a critical news value. * Proximity – Similar to Gatlung and Ruge’s “Relevance.” The closer an event takes place to the intended audience, the more important it is. This is why huge local or regional stories might not make the national news. * Importance, impact, or consequence – How many people will the event impact? Issues like global warming issues have become big news in recent years precisely because environmental changes affect the entire planet.

* Interest – Does the story have any special human interest? For example, the inspirational story of a person overcoming large odds to reach her goal appeals to a fundamental human interest. * Conflict or Controversy – Similar to Gatlung and Ruge’s “Negativity.” Editors generally deem conflict more newsworthy than peace. * Sensationalism – Sensational stories tend to make the front pages more than the everyday. * Prominence – Similar to Gatlung and Ruge’s “Elite People.” The actions of prominent people are much more likely to make the news than non-public figures. * Novelty, oddity, or the unusual – Strange stories are likely to find their way into the news. Dog bites man—no story. Man bites dog—story.

In the present era of audience fragmentation, individual audience members increasingly choose what kind of news content they receive, yet traditional news values often still govern how deeply a news story permeates a community. In 1973, Gatlung and Ruge developed one of the first models of news values. Shoemaker el al. followed up in 1987 with a similar model. Both offer a useful framework for understanding how gatekeepers evaluate potential news stories.

Elements Of News

While dealing with news, two stages we have covered so far. First, to see what we call news, what actually isnews? Second, to understand those features that convert an ordinary event or statement or opinion, into News.

Now we go into details of news elements. News must carry following elements to come up to the ideal Standards of news.

1.Accuracy
2.Meaningful
3.Interesting
4.Factual
5.Objectivity
6.Conciseness
7.Clarity
8.Comprehensiveness
9.Cohesiveness

Ingredients Of Good News

1. Proximity

Closeness, either because of geographical proximity or because of relationship For example: News about the area (geographical) or news about things of interest/concern to locals (relationship).

Example

LAHORE, Feb 5: One person was killed and six others suffered multiple injuries in a roof collapse incident at Muhammad Ali Chow in Johar Town early on Tuesday.dawn

2. Timeliness

The news happened recently (since the last edition) It’s new , otherwise, we’d call it “olds” Almost every story has some timeliness aspect For example: A teen driver is hit by another car at the intersection of Miller and Russell today, in the newspaper tomorrow.

Example

LAHORE: Dense fog causes problems in Lahore

Interchange of the motorway has been closed due dense fog here, SAMAA reported Wednesday night. Several cars collided with each other owing to dense fog on Lahore-Islamabad Motorway, leaving 11 people injured near Thokar Niaz Baig on Tuesday. National Highway and Motorways Police said that around three kilometers distance from Thokar Niaz Baig on Motorway, 10 cars collided in to each other due to reduced visibility on the Motorway. They said Lahore-Islamabad Motorway would remain close in the foggy hours to avoid any such incident

3. Consequence

The subject of a story has an impact on how people live their lives. For example: A story on a new curfew that will take effect, or a street that is under construction, or a scientific breakthrough Example

Measles spreads in Gujranwala; affects 100 children

GUJRANWALA: As many as 100 children have been diagnosed with measles in just three days here, SAMAA reports on Sunday. Several cases of the disease are being reported in the city’s hospitals. Right now at least 100 children who are affected by measles are under treatment.

4. Uniqueness /wonderfulness

Weird stuff. For Example . A 77-year-old Ukrainian man won a jar full of sour cream for coming first in a dumpling eating contest and then promptly died, local media reported on Wednesday. Example

World’s longest cat dies
Stewie the Cat, the longest domestic cat in the world, measuring more than 4 feet long from nose to tail, has died after cancer battle.

5. Number of people
Big crowd makes a big news but small crowd is not news. . For example protest of young doctors is a news . Example
LAHORE: Young doctors of Punjab continued to observe a hunger strike in Lahore for the third straight day on Wednesday.

Dozens of young doctors working in various health facilities staged a sit-in to order to pressureize the provincial government for accepting their demands regarding service structure and reinstatement of suspended fellow workers.

According to reports, some participants of the hunger strike were hospitalized after their condition deteriorated. Others are getting
necessary medical help in the camp.

According to doctors, the government is yet to make any contact with them.

Office bearers of Railway Labor Union also met the protesting doctors and assured their complete support.

6. Mystery

A profound secret; something wholly unknown, or something kept cautiously concealed and therefore exciting curiosity or wonder to the audience when it is disclosed to them .

Example

Meher bukhari mubashir luqman the anchor person on Duniya News channel did the pre planned intrerview of Malik Riaz the owner of bahria town society and considered as a very rich person of Pakistan,to damage the position of Chief Justice Of Pakistan Ch Iftikhar that show was totally fake and planted and that cheap clipping was leaked by Tallat Hussian the senior anchor person of Dawn News

7. Emotions

New which is related to the emotions of the people or effects them emotionally

Example

The cold-blooded murder of 20-year-old Shahzeb Khan in Karachi, at the hands of two young feudal despots – Nawab Siraj Talpur and Shahrukh Jatoi – is just another example of our collective failure in this regard

8. Prominent personality
New related to prominent personality,s life
Example
Famous singer Mehnaz laid to rest in KarachiI: Pakistan’s prominent female singer Mehnaz Begum, who died in Bahrain on Saturday, was laid to rest here on Monday,

Her funeral prayer offered after Zohar in Khairul Amal Masjid at Ancholi area. She was buried in Wadi-e-Hussain graveyard near Karachi Super Highway. 9. Adventure and invention
News related to something which is like a invention or adventurous to the public
Example
The heaviest ride able bicycle weighs 750 kg (1650 lb) and was built by Wouter van den Bosch (Netherlands)

Conclusion

Every news outlet has a different protocol for selecting which stories to run, but some traditional values often determine the “newsworthiness” of a story News values are criteria used in newsroom practice to

Select, out of the several contending items that are potential news, only a few items That qualify for inclusion in the news. Journalists judge news events in terms of their News values quotient. It has also shown that news values, in addition to being seen as Professional ideologies constructed by journalists, are exercised in augmentation with

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