Countries and Iran sample essay
The study ventured to assess selected variables associated with the ICT exports and broadband penetration in the OECD member-countries and Iran. Specifically, the following areas were tackled : ICT exports in the OECD member-countries and the Middle East based on their revealed comparative advantage; Broadband penetration in the OECD member-countries and the Middle East including Iran; and extent of ICT penetration in Iran.
The study adopted the descriptive method of research using documentary analysis as the principal technique. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were utilized to describe the statistical indicators of the volume of DSL subscription, as well as the monthly aubscription charges and the speed of connection. The Balassa index was applied as a measure of the revealed comparative advantage in the evaluation of ICT exports.
The Pearson correlation coefficient provided statistical insight as to the linear relationship among the following pairs of variables : monthly charge and volume of DSL subscription; volume of DSL subscription and speed of connection; volume of DSL subscription and the volume of ICT exports in OECD member-countries; volume of broadband subscription and volume of ICT exports to the Middle East (including Iran); GDP and Internet usage, GDP and mobile phone usage and GDP and fixed phone usage; population and Internet usage in Middle East; population and mobile usage in Middle East; and population and fixed phone usage in Middle East.
Findings of the study revealed that the following : (1) Middle Eastern countries are not ICT export-oriented; (2) Iran registered a low RCA; (3) there is no relationship between the volume of DSL subscription and ICT exports in the OECD member-countries, while the opposite is true for the Middle East countries; (4) GDP in the Middle East is not influenced by the penetration of the Internet, mobile phones and fixed telephones; (5) Internet usage, mobile phone usage and fixed telephone usage are all directly related to the volume of population in the Middle East. Introduction for the Sub-sections
The first sub-section of the study analyzed the ICT exports of OECD member-countries and the Middle East during the period from 1996 to 2004. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) in ICT exports for each member country of the two groups (i. e. OECD and Middle East) were computed using the Balassa index. The resulting numerical ratio for each country as reflected in the computed Balassa index indicated the ICT export capability of each OECD member-country as a function of the aggregate OECD export; in the same sense, it showed the ICT export strength of each Middle East country in terms of the combined export of the geographic region.
Results suggest that despite of significant changes in ICT export from OECD countries during the 1996 to 2004 period, the pattern of revealed comparative advantage has remained almost stable for some countries. Middle Eastern countries were found to be non-ICT export-oriented and that Iran has a low RCA. The second sub-section tackled broadband penetration statistics in the OECD and Middle East, and an evaluation of significant relationships between selected variables ascribed to broadband connectivity, such as monthly subscription charges and speed of connection.
Significant associations between Broadband connectivity and ICT export capability were also tested. Findings revealed no evidence to conclude the existence of significant relationships between the volume of DSL subscription and ICT exports either in the OECD member-countries or in the Middle Countries The third sub-section assessed the current state of ICT in Iran. Particularly, the section looked into the major Iranian telecommunication companies and their products.
ICT-related statistics and penetration rates during the aforementioned period were also investigated. Results from the inquiry disclosed that Internet, mobile phone usage and fixed telephone usage are directly related to the volume of population in the Middle East. Hypotheses The following hypotheses, stated in the null form, were formulated for Chapter 2 based on the computed values of the Balassa Index (Hinloopen & Van Marrewijk, 2001):
1. There was no significant gain in comparative advantage among the OECD member countries with respect to ICT exports. 2. There was no significant gain in comparative advantage in Iran with respect to ICT exports. For Chapter 3, the following hypotheses, also stated in the null form, were drawn in the analysis of ICT exports and broadband penetration between the OECD member countries on one hand, and Iran on the other :
There was no significant correlation between the volume of DSL subscription and the monthly charges. 2. There was no significant correlation between the volume of DSL subscription and the speed of connection. 3. There was no significant correlation between the volume of broadband subscription and ICT exports in the Middle East. 4. There was no significant correlation between the volume of broadband subscription and ICT exports in the OECD member-countries.
For Chapter 4, the following hypotheses, also stated in the null form, developed in the analysis of ICT exports and broadband penetration between the OECD member countries on one hand, and Iran on the other : 1. There were no significant relationships between the gross domestic product (GDP) and Internet usage, mobile phone usage and fixed telephone usage in the Middle East. 2. There were no significant relationships between population and Internet usage, mobile phone usage and fixed telephone usage in the Middle East.
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