Deforestation in Indonesia and Brazil sample essay
Deforestation is normally referred to activities that all trees in forest are taken away through either the purpose is to get timber or to replace the area for alternative uses can cause environmental degradation, and pollution emission. There are similarities and differences of deforestation causes in Brazil and Indonesia. The objective of this essay is to compare and contrast the similarities and differences of deforestation in Indonesia and Brazil in term of mining, burning forest and logging.
Mining is one of the main causes of deforestation. Indonesia and Brazil’s forests have been suffered badly from mining activities. However, mining in Indonesia is different from Brazil. Mining in Indonesia is legal because the government wants to drive macroeconomic growth and decrease poverty in Indonesia (Coal exploitation and Kalimantan’s blighted generation, 2010). Indonesian government permits local mining companies in some allowed area. In 1850, mining rights could be provided to private companies for exploration and mining mineral and produce petrol (Mills, n,d.). The number of citizens in Indonesia living under the poverty has increased approximately 324,800 or 11 percent of the total citizens of 2.8 million people because of unemployment. The government also has anticipated coal stocks of 1.983 billion tones in East Kalimantan in order to create the largest provincial economy in Kalimantan. In 2011, Indonesia not only exported coal over 300Mt, but it also has overtaken Australia as world’s largest coal exporter. (Coal exploitation and Kalimantan’s blighted generation, 2010).
On the other side, mining in Brazilian forest is illegal. The Brazilian government is against both international companies and private sectors to do mining in the forest because of protecting native tribes. The Yanomami who is one of the largest isolated tribes approximately 25,700 people in South America still exist for the most part without communication with the outsiders, survive by hunting and farming (Project Voyager, n.d.). In 1980, when the rising price of minerals, the tribes suffered immensely from 40,000 gold miners broke into their land for gold, diamonds, niobium and uranium exploration (Yanomami fear for their lives as miners invade their land, 2010). Around twenty years ago, there was one the tribe in age eighteen was killed by Brazilian gold mines and some of them use violence on tribes (The rainforest foundation, n.d.). Moreover, over 900 gold miners who still work illegally in Yanomami region spread the diseases like malaria on the tribes and pollute the rivers (Survival for tribes people, n.d.).
Forest fire, which is one of the important elements that lead to deforestation in Indonesia and Brazil, can be caused by different ways. There is difference cause of burning forest between Indonesia and Brazil. On the other hand, burning of trees in Indonesia is caused by industrial activities (Forest fires rage across Indonesia and Brazil, 2006). Approximately 80 percent of burning forest in the Kalimantan takes place because of clearing land for oil palm, industrial timber plantations and rubber. Palm oil companies burn forest for oil palm plantation because the increasing requirement for a common ingredient in processed foods, soaps, personal care products and biofuels ( Jordan, 2012). In 1997, over 10 million hectares of Indonesian tropical forest in Kalimantan were burnt by industrial activities.
In contrast, burning forest in Brazil is caused by natural phenomenon (Forest fires rage across Indonesia and Brazil, 2006). Drought in the Amazon has long been connected with El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Pacific Ocean. During an El Niño period, the winds that usually blow from east to west across the Amazon weaken can cause less moisture is put off the swamp, and it draw moisture away from the forest so it lead to burning forest. For instance, during December and February in 2012, Southern Brazilian forests dried off and became even more impressionable to fire easily (Warming Atlantic primes the Amazon for fire, 2012). In Roraima, forest fire from El Ninno damaged over 37,000 Kilometres of forest total area ( El Ninno Phenomenon, n.d.).
Logging is another main cause of deforestation in Indonesia and Brazil. Logging is a major contribution to the loss of both Indonesian forest and Brazilian amazon. Logging in Indonesia has been widespread around the country because of a political corruption and develop economic growth (Global Forest Watch, n.d.). Suharto, the former president attempt to boost economic growth in export revenues by authorize the timber industries to harvest wood in public forest under concessions cover more than 80 percent of the country’s total forest (Smith, 2003). The Ministry of Forestry also stated that logging has destructed Indonesian Borneo and Kalimantan cost the country an estimated RP 311.4 trillion or around $36.4 billion (Tropical Forest Foundation, n.d.). They let exports without grant, or overlook tax evasion, logging outside authorised areas or the violation of harvesting regulations in return for a bribe.
For instance, in 1999, over 40 percent of the wood is used by producing of plywood, pulp and paper production. In 2007, 45 percent of trees exported to United of the State, Europe and China. Likewise in Brazil, the government wants to drive agricultural growth. Logging and industrial processing of timber export and charcoal export are the major economic activities in the Brazilian forest (Global Forest Watch, n.d.). The loggers normally cut down the trees in Brazil from 72 percent up to 82 percent for exporting (Veríssimo,2004). Moreover, the logging activity takes place in 80 logging centers situated mostly in the states of Mato Grosso and Rondoni. They have earned high income 381 million US dollar to 944 million US dollar in 1998 from export lumber and plywood into developing countries (Human pressure on the Brazilian Amazon forests, n.d.)
All in all, there are similar and different causes of deforestation between Indonesia and Brazil such as mining. Indonesian government has allowed private companies to do mining to boost macroeconomic and decrease poverty in country. Nevertheless, Brazilian government concerns about the extinction of native tribes, so they are against mining in Brazilian region. Next, burning forest in Indonesia is caused by industrial activities such as growing oil palms, timbers and rubber trees. However, Brazilian forest is threatened by natural phenomenon. The forest fire in Brazil is normally caused by El Ninno during December to February that is widespread in many regions not comes from industrial activities. Logging still exists in Indonesia and Brazil because the government want to drive economic in export derivative woods to other countries and political corruption.
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