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Eco 550 Final Exam Part 2 Five Versions Posted Making 125 Questions

ECO 550 FINAL EXAM PART 2 ( FIVE VERSIONS POSTED MAKING 125 QUESTIONS)

VERSION 1
Question 1

To trust a potential cooperator until the first defection and then never cooperate thereafter is
Answer

a dominant strategy

an irrational strategy

a grim trigger strategy

a non-cooperative finite game strategy

a subgame imperfect strategy
Question 2

The Prisoner’s Dilemma involves two spies who are held in separate soundproof rooms. But even if the two spies could communicate, what makes it difficult for them to achieve the cooperative solution (both not confessing)?
Answer

The problem is their lack of information.

The problem is that it is a nonzero sum game.

The problem is that both spies have incentives to double cross each other.

The problem is that all the outcomes are not particularly good for either player
Question 3

An illustration of a non-credible commitment is the promise
Answer

to not increase capacity in a declining industry

to match a new entrant’s discount price

to enter a profitable industry

to restrain output to the quota assigned by a cartel

to exit in the face of projected losses.
Question 4

The starting point of many methods for predicting equilibrium strategy in sequential games is
Answer

designing proactive reactions to rival actions

information sets

uncertain outcomes

backwards induction based on an explicit order of play

endgame analysis
Question 5

Non-cooperative sequential games can incorporate all the following features except
Answer

a single decision-maker in the endgame

no communication

finite or infinite time periods

third-party enforceable agreements

an explicit order of play
Question 6

Firms that have a cover charge for their customers and charge for each item they purchase as well are exhibiting
Answer

universal access price discrimination

declining block price discrimination.

mixed bundling price discrimination.

two-part price discrimination.

uniform pricing
Question 7

____ is the price at which an intermediate good or service is transferred from the selling to the buying division within the same firm.
Answer

Incremental price

Marginal price

Full-cost price

Transfer price
Question 8

Electricity pricing that varies in its billing expense throughout the day is called
Answer

full pricing

marginal cost pricing

dynamic pricing

variable pricing

full cost pricing pricing
Question 9

Vacation tours to Europe invariably package visits to disparate regions: cities, mountains, and the seaside. Bundling, a type of second degree price discrimination, is most profitable when:
Answer

the preference rankings of vacationers travelling together are negatively correlated.

a preference for cities is always higher than preferences for mountain vistas.

preference rankings of vacationers travelling together are positively correlated.

preference for the seaside is always higher than preferences for city excursions
Question 10

____ is a new product pricing strategy which results in a high initial product price. This price is reduced over time as demand at the higher price is satisfied.
Answer

Prestige pricing

Price lining

Skimming

Incremental pricing
Question 11

Vertical integration may be motivated by all of the following except:
Answer

Upstream market power

Economies of ever wider spans of managerial control

Technological interdependencies

Reduced search and bargaining cost

The hold-up problem.
Question 12

When manufacturers and distributors establish credible commitments to one another, they often employ
Answer

vertical requirements contracts

third-party monitoring

credible threat mechanisms

non-price tactics
Question 13

When borrowers who do not intend to repay are able to hide their bad credit histories, a lender’s well-intentioned borrowers should
Answer

complain to regulatory authorities

withdraw their loan applications

offer more collateral in exchange for lower interest charges

divulge still more information on their loan applications

hope for a pooling equilibrium
Question 14

Which of the following are not approaches to resolving the principal-agent problem?
Answer

ex ante incentive alignment

deferred stock options

ex post governance mechanism

straight salary contracts

monitoring by independent outside directors
Question 15

Non-redeployable durable assets that are dependent upon unique complementary and perfectly redeployable assets to achieve substantial value-added will typically be organized as
Answer

an export trading company

a spot market contract

a vertically integrated firm

an on-going relational contract

a joint stock company
Question 16

The lower the barriers to entry and exit, the more nearly a market structure fits the ____ market model.
Answer

monopolistic competition

perfectly contestable

oligopoly

monopoly
Question 17

____ occurs whenever a third party receives or bears costs arising from an economic transaction in which the individual (or group) is not a direct participant.
Answer

Pecuniary benefits and costs

Externalities

Intangibles

Monopoly costs and benefits
Question 18

____ yields the same results as the theory of perfect competition, but requires substantially fewer assumptions than the perfectly competitive model.
Answer

Baumol’s sales maximization hypothesis

The Pareto optimality condition

The Cournot model

The theory of contestable markets
Question 19

The ____ is equal to the some of the squares of the market shares of all the firms in an industry.
Answer

market concentration ratio

Herfindahl-Hirschman index

correlation coefficient

standard deviation of concentration
Question 20

The sentiment for increased deregulation in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s has been felt most significantly in the price regulation of
Answer

coal

grain

transportation

automobiles

electric power generation
Question 21

Which of the following is (are) a basic principle(s) when estimating a project’s cash flows?
Answer

cash flows should be measured on a pre-tax basis

cash flows should ignore depreciation since it is a non-cash charge

only direct effects of a project should be included in the cash flow calculations

cash flows should be measured on an incremental basis
Question 22

The ____ depicts the risk-return relationship in the market for all securities:
Answer

characteristic line

security market line

investment opportunity curve

marginal cost of capital schedule
Question 23

In cost-effectiveness analysis, constant cost studies:
Answer

are rarely used

attempt to specify the output which may be achieved from a number of alternative programs, assuming all are funded at the same level

are useless because they fail to adequately evaluate program benefits

try to find the least expensive way of achieving a certain objective
Question 24

Any current outlay that is expected to yield a flow of benefits beyond one year in the future is:
Answer

a capital gain

a wealth maximizing factor

a capital expenditure

a cost of capital

a dividend reinvestment
Question 25

Which of the following should not be counted in a cost-benefit analysis?
Answer

direct benefits and costs

real secondary benefits

technological secondary costs

pecuniary benefits

intangibles

VERSION 2

Question 1
In a game, a dominated strategy is one where:
Answer

It is always the best strategy

It is always the worst strategy

It is the strategy that is the best among the group of worst possible strategies.

Is sometimes the best and sometimes the worst strategy
Question 2
Cooperation in repeated prisoner’s dilemma situations seems to be enhanced by all of the following except
Answer

limited punishment schemes

clarity of conditional rewards

grim trigger strategy

provocability–i.e., credible threats of punishment

tit for tat strategy
Question 3
Consider the game known as the Prisoner’s Dilemma. What’s the dilemma?
Answer

By both not confessing, both get to the cooperative solution and minimize time in prison.

By both confessing, both get to the noncooperative solution and both serve significant time in prison.

As a group, they are better off cooperating by not confessing, but each player has an incentive to be first to confess in a double cross.

The problem is that the spies should never have been caught; they should move to Rio.
Question 4
To trust a potential cooperator until the first defection and then never cooperate thereafter is
Answer

a dominant strategy

an irrational strategy

a grim trigger strategy

a non-cooperative finite game strategy

a subgame imperfect strategy
Question 5
When airlines post prices on an electronic bulletin board at 8:00 a.m. each morning, the decision-makers are engaged in
Answer

a single play game

a sequential game

an entry decision

a simultaneous game

an infinite repetition game
Question 6
The following are possible examples of price discrimination, EXCEPT:
Answer

prices in export markets are lower than for identical products in the domestic market.

senior citizens pay lower fares on public transportation than younger people at the same time.

a product sells at a higher price at location A than at location B, because transportation costs are higher from the factory to A.

subscription prices for a professional journal are higher when bought by a library than when bought by an individual.
Question 7
____ is a new product pricing strategy which results in a high initial product price. This price is reduced over time as demand at the higher price is satisfied.
Answer

Prestige pricing

Price lining

Skimming

Incremental pricing
Question 8
____ is the price at which an intermediate good or service is transferred from the selling to the buying division within the same firm.
Answer

Incremental price

Marginal price

Full-cost price

Transfer price
Question 9
Third-degree price discrimination exists whenever:
Answer

the seller knows exactly how much each potential customer is willing to pay and will charge accordingly.

different prices are charged by blocks of services.

the seller can separate markets by geography, income, age, etc., and charge different prices to these different groups.

the seller will bargain with buyers in each of the markets to obtain the best possible price.
Question 10
To maximize profits, a monopolist that engages in price discrimination must allocate output in such a way as to make identical the ____ in all markets.
Answer

ratio of price to marginal cost

ratio of marginal cost to marginal utility

ratio of price to elasticity

marginal revenue
Question 11
Which of the following is not among the functions of contract?
Answer

to provide incentives for efficient reliance

to reduce transaction costs

to discourage the development of asymmetric information

to provide risk allocation mechanisms
Question 12
Non-redeployable durable assets that are dependent upon unique complementary and perfectly redeployable assets to achieve substantial value-added will typically be organized as
Answer

an export trading company

a spot market contract

a vertically integrated firm

an on-going relational contract

a joint stock company.
Question 13
When retail bicycle dealers advertise and perform warranty repairs but do not deliver the personal selling message that Schwinn has designed as part of the marketing plan but cannot observe at less than prohibitive cost, the manufacturer has encountered a problem of ____.
Answer

reliance relationships

uncertainty

moral hazard

creative ingenuity

insurance reliance
Question 14
Which of the following are not approaches to resolving the principal-agent problem?
Answer

ex ante incentive alignment

deferred stock options

ex post governance mechanism

straight salary contracts

monitoring by independent outside directors
Question 15
Buying electricity off the freewheeling grid at one quarter ’til the hour for delivery on the hour illustrates:
Answer

relational contracts with distributors

vertical requirements contracts

spot market transactions

variable price agreements
Question 16
The antitrust laws regulate all of the following business decisions except ____.
Answer

collusion

mergers

monopolistic practices

price discrimination

wage levels

Question 17
The ____ is equal to the some of the squares of the market shares of all the firms in an industry.
Answer

market concentration ratio

Herfindahl-Hirschman index

correlation coefficient

standard deviation of concentration
Question 18
____ occurs whenever a third party receives or bears costs arising from an economic transaction in which the individual (or group) is not a direct participant.
Answer

Pecuniary benefits and costs

Externalities

Intangibles

Monopoly costs and benefits
Question 19
The lower the barriers to entry and exit, the more nearly a market structure fits the ____ market model.
Answer

monopolistic competition

perfectly contestable

oligopoly

monopoly
Question 20
The Herfindahl-Hirschman index (also shortened to just the Herfindahl index) is a measure of ____.
Answer

market concentration

income distribution

technological progressiveness

price discrimination
Question 21
Any current outlay that is expected to yield a flow of benefits beyond one year in the future is:
Answer

a capital gain

a wealth maximizing factor

a capital expenditure

a cost of capital

a dividend reinvestment
Question 22
In order to help assure that all relevant factors will be considered, the capital-expenditure selection process should include the following steps except:
Answer

generating alternative capital-investment project proposals

estimating cash flows for the project proposals

reviewing the investment projects after they have been implemented

allocate manpower to the various divisions within the firm
Question 23
Cost-benefit analysis is the public sector counterpart to ____ used in private, profit-oriented firms.
Answer

ratio analysis

break-even analysis

capital budgeting techniques

economic forecasting
Question 24
The decision by the Municipal Transit Authority to either refurbish existing buses, buy new large buses, or to supplement the existing fleet with mini-buses is an example of:
Answer

independent projects

mutually exclusive projects

contingent projects

separable projects
Question 25
If the acceptance of Project A makes it impossible to accept Project B, these projects are:
Answer

contingent projects

complementary projects

mutually inclusive projects

mutually exclusive projects

VERSION 3

Question 1
If one-time gains from defection are always less than the discounted present value of an infinite time stream of cooperative payoffs at some given discount rate, the decision-makers have escaped
a. the Folk Theorem
b. the law of large numbers
c. the Prisoner’s dilemma
d. the paradox of large numbers
e. the strategy of recusal
Question 2
Credibility in threats and commitments in sequential games is based on
a. randomizing one’s actions so they are unpredictable
b. explicit communications with competitors
c. effective scenario planning
d. analyzing best reply responses
Question 3
A dominant strategy differs from a Nash equilibrium strategy in that
a. Nash equilibrium strategy does not assume best reply responses
b. dominant strategy assumes best reply responses
c. only Nash strategy applies to simultaneous games
d. one dominant strategy is sufficient to predict behavior in a multi-person game
e. Nash strategy is often unique
Question 4
Non-cooperative sequential games can incorporate all the following features except
a. a single decision-maker in the endgame
b. no communication
c. finite or infinite time periods
d. third-party enforceable agreements
e. an explicit order of play
Question 5
Vertical integration may be motivated by all of the following except:
a. Upstream market power
b. Economies of ever wider spans of managerial control
c. Technological interdependencies
d. Reduced search and bargaining cost
e. The hold-up problem.
Question 6
____ yields the same results as the theory of perfect competition, but requires substantially fewer assumptions than the perfectly competitive model.
a. Baumol’s sales maximization hypothesis
b. The Pareto optimality condition
c. The Cournot model
d. The theory of contestable markets

Question 7
Which of the following items is (are) not considered as part of the net investment calculation?
a. installation and shipping charges
b. acquisition cost of new asset
c. salvage value of old equipment that is being replaced
d. first year’s net cash flow
Question 8
Which of the following items is (are) not considered as part of the net investment calculation?
a. installation and shipping charges
b. acquisition cost of new asset
c. salvage value of old equipment that is being replaced
d. first year’s net cash flow
Question 9
The ____ method assumes that the cash flows over the life of the project are reinvested at the ____.
a. net present value; computed internal rate of return
b. internal rate of return; firm’s cost of capital
c. net present value; firm’s cost of capital
d. net present value; risk-free rate of return
Question 10
Which of the following is (are) a basic principle(s) when estimating a project’s cash flows?
a. cash flows should be measured on a pre-tax basis
b. cash flows should ignore depreciation since it is a non-cash charge
c. only direct effects of a project should be included in the cash flow calculations
d. cash flows should be measured on an incremental basis
Question 11
The weights used in calculating the firm’s weighted-average cost of capital are equal to the proportion of debt and equity ____.
a. used to finance the project
b. used to finance the projects undertaken last year
c. in the industry average capital structure
d. in the firm’s target capital structure

THIRD VERSION
Question 1
Consider the game known as the Prisoner’s Dilemma. What’s the dilemma?
Answer

By both not confessing, both get to the cooperative solution and minimize time in prison.

By both confessing, both get to the noncooperative solution and both serve significant time in prison.

As a group, they are better off cooperating by not confessing, but each player has an incentive to be first to confess in a double cross.

The problem is that the spies should never have been caught; they should move to Rio.
4 points
Question 2
Essential components of a game include all of the following except:
Answer

players

payoffs

actions

an information set

cooperation
4 points
Question 3
In a game, a dominated strategy is one where:
Answer

It is always the best strategy

It is always the worst strategy

It is the strategy that is the best among the group of worst possible strategies.

Is sometimes the best and sometimes the worst strategy
4 points
Question 4
When airlines post prices on an electronic bulletin board at 8:00 a.m. each morning, the decision-makers are engaged in
Answer

a single play game

a sequential game

an entry decision

a simultaneous game

an infinite repetition game
4 points
Question 5
Cooperation in repeated prisoner’s dilemma situations seems to be enhanced by all of the following except
Answer

limited punishment schemes

clarity of conditional rewards

grim trigger strategy

provocability–i.e., credible threats of punishment

tit for tat strategy
4 points
Question 6
____ is the price at which an intermediate good or service is transferred from the selling to the buying division within the same firm.
Answer

Incremental price

Marginal price

Full-cost price

Transfer price
4 points
Question 7
The following are possible examples of price discrimination, EXCEPT:
Answer

prices in export markets are lower than for identical products in the domestic market.

senior citizens pay lower fares on public transportation than younger people at the same time.

a product sells at a higher price at location A than at location B, because transportation costs are higher from the factory to A.

subscription prices for a professional journal are higher when bought by a library than when bought by an individual.
4 points
Question 8
Third-degree price discrimination exists whenever:
Answer

the seller knows exactly how much each potential customer is willing to pay and will charge accordingly.

different prices are charged by blocks of services.

the seller can separate markets by geography, income, age, etc., and charge different prices to these different groups.

the seller will bargain with buyers in each of the markets to obtain the best possible price.
4 points
Question 9
To maximize profits, a monopolist that engages in price discrimination must allocate output in such a way as to make identical the ____ in all markets.
Answer

ratio of price to marginal cost

ratio of marginal cost to marginal utility

ratio of price to elasticity

marginal revenue
4 points
Question 10
____ is a new product pricing strategy which results in a high initial product price. This price is reduced over time as demand at the higher price is satisfied.
Answer

Prestige pricing

Price lining

Skimming

Incremental pricing
4 points
Question 11
Buying electricity off the freewheeling grid at one quarter ’til the hour for delivery on the hour illustrates:
Answer

relational contracts with distributors

vertical requirements contracts

spot market transactions

variable price agreements
4 points
Question 12
When someone contracts to do a task but fails to put full effort into the performance of an agreement, yet the lack of effort is not independently verifiable, this lack of effort constitutes a
Answer

breach of contractual obligations

denial of good guarantee

loss of reputation

moral hazard
4 points
Question 13
Non-redeployable durable assets that are dependent upon unique complementary and perfectly redeployable assets to achieve substantial value-added will typically be organized as
Answer

an export trading company

a spot market contract

a vertically integrated firm

an on-going relational contract

a joint stock company.
4 points
Question 14
Governance mechanisms are designed
Answer

to increase contracting costs

to resolve post-contractual opportunism

to enhance the flexibility of restrictive covenants

to replace insurance
4 points
Question 15
Which of the following are not approaches to resolving the principal-agent problem?
Answer

ex ante incentive alignment

deferred stock options

ex post governance mechanism

straight salary contracts

monitoring by independent outside directors
4 points
Question 16
____ occurs whenever a third party receives or bears costs arising from an economic transaction in which the individual (or group) is not a direct participant.
Answer

Pecuniary benefits and costs

Externalities

Intangibles

Monopoly costs and benefits
4 points
Question 17
The antitrust laws regulate all of the following business decisions except ____.
Answer

collusion

mergers

monopolistic practices

price discrimination

wage levels
4 points
Question 18
The Herfindahl-Hirschman index (also shortened to just the Herfindahl index) is a measure of ____.
Answer

market concentration

income distribution

technological progressiveness

price discrimination
4 points
Question 19
The lower the barriers to entry and exit, the more nearly a market structure fits the ____ market model.
Answer

monopolistic competition

perfectly contestable

oligopoly

monopoly
points
Question 20

The ____ is equal to the some of the squares of the market shares of all the firms in an industry.
Answer

market concentration ratio

Herfindahl-Hirschman index

correlation coefficient

standard deviation of concentration
4 points
Question 21
In the constant-growth dividend valuation model, the required rate of return on common stock (i.e., cost of equity capital) can be shown to be equal to the sum of the dividend yield plus the ____.
Answer

yield-to-maturity

present value yield

risk-free rate

dividend growth rate
4 points
Question 22
In cost-effectiveness analysis, constant cost studies:
Answer

are rarely used

attempt to specify the output which may be achieved from a number of alternative programs, assuming all are funded at the same level

are useless because they fail to adequately evaluate program benefits

try to find the least expensive way of achieving a certain objective
4 points
Question 23
The social rate of discount is best approximated by:
Answer

the cost of government borrowing

the opportunity cost of resources taken from the private sector

3 percent

30 percent
4 points
Question 24
Any current outlay that is expected to yield a flow of benefits beyond one year in the future is:
Answer

a capital gain

a wealth maximizing factor

a capital expenditure

a cost of capital

a dividend reinvestment
4 points
Question 25
Which of the following would not be classified as a capital expenditure for decision-making purposes?
Answer

purchase of a building

investment in a new milling machine

purchase of 90-day Treasury Bills

investment in a management training program

VERSION 4
Question 1

The difference between cooperative and non-cooperative games is
Answer

cooperative games allow side payments to support collusion

non-cooperative games encourage communication of sensitive information between arms-length competitors

cooperative games involve randomized behavior

cooperative games necessitate an explicit order of play

inconsequential except when players have contractual relationships
Question 2

To trust a potential cooperator until the first defection and then never cooperate thereafter is
Answer

a dominant strategy

an irrational strategy

a grim trigger strategy

a non-cooperative finite game strategy

a subgame imperfect strategy
Question 3

The starting point of many methods for predicting equilibrium strategy in sequential games is
Answer

designing proactive reactions to rival actions

information sets

uncertain outcomes

backwards induction based on an explicit order of play

endgame analysis
Question 4

Credibility in threats and commitments in sequential games is based on
Answer

randomizing one’s actions so they are unpredictable

explicit communications with competitors

effective scenario planning

analyzing best reply responses
Question 5

An illustration of a non-credible commitment is the promise
Answer

to not increase capacity in a declining industry

to match a new entrant’s discount price

to enter a profitable industry

to restrain output to the quota assigned by a cartel

to exit in the face of projected losses.
Question 6

To maximize profits, a monopolist that engages in price discrimination must allocate output in such a way as to make identical the ____ in all markets.
Answer

ratio of price to marginal cost

ratio of marginal cost to marginal utility

ratio of price to elasticity

marginal revenue
Question 7

Electricity pricing that varies in its billing expense throughout the day is called
Answer

full pricing

marginal cost pricing

dynamic pricing

variable pricing

full cost pricing pricing
Question 8

Firms that have a cover charge for their customers and charge for each item they purchase as well are exhibiting
Answer

universal access price discrimination

declining block price discrimination.

mixed bundling price discrimination.

two-part price discrimination.

uniform pricing
Question 9

The segmenting of customers into several small groups such as household, institutional, commercial, and industrial users, and establishing a different rate schedule for each group is known as:
Answer

first-degree price discrimination

market penetration

third-degree price discrimination

second-degree price discrimination
Question 10

The following are possible examples of price discrimination, EXCEPT:
Answer

prices in export markets are lower than for identical products in the domestic market.

senior citizens pay lower fares on public transportation than younger people at the same time.

a product sells at a higher price at location A than at location B, because transportation costs are higher from the factory to A.

subscription prices for a professional journal are higher when bought by a library than when bought by an individual.
Question 11

Buying electricity off the freewheeling grid at one quarter ’til the hour for delivery on the hour illustrates:
Answer

relational contracts with distributors

vertical requirements contracts

spot market transactions

variable price agreements
Question 12

Governance mechanisms are designed
Answer

to increase contracting costs

to resolve post-contractual opportunism

to enhance the flexibility of restrictive covenants

to replace insurance
Question 13

Which of the following are not approaches to resolving the principal-agent problem?
Answer

ex ante incentive alignment

deferred stock options

ex post governance mechanism

straight salary contracts

monitoring by independent outside directors
Question 14

Contracts are distinguished from tactical alliances by which of the following characteristics:
Answer

involve sequential responses

require third-party enforcement

raise shareholder value

elicit diminished reactions from competitors
Question 15

When retail bicycle dealers advertise and perform warranty repairs but do not deliver the personal selling message that Schwinn has designed as part of the marketing plan but cannot observe at less than prohibitive cost, the manufacturer has encountered a problem of ____.
Answer

reliance relationships

uncertainty

moral hazard

creative ingenuity

insurance reliance
Question 16

The sentiment for increased deregulation in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s has been felt most significantly in the price regulation of
Answer

coal

grain

transportation

automobiles

electric power generation
Question 17

____ occurs whenever a third party receives or bears costs arising from an economic transaction in which the individual (or group) is not a direct participant.
Answer

Pecuniary benefits and costs

Externalities

Intangibles

Monopoly costs and benefits
Question 18

____ yields the same results as the theory of perfect competition, but requires substantially fewer assumptions than the perfectly competitive model.
Answer

Baumol’s sales maximization hypothesis

The Pareto optimality condition

The Cournot model

The theory of contestable markets
Question 19

The lower the barriers to entry and exit, the more nearly a market structure fits the ____ market model.
Answer

monopolistic competition

perfectly contestable

oligopoly

monopoly
Question 20

The antitrust laws regulate all of the

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