| Emerging Asian Powers Essay
China has in the recent past conquered most of the world in both commercial and diplomatic levels. The increase in the influence of this Asian economic giant has been because of its policies and transparency in its dealings. The fact that the Chinese people are non partisan in their association has boosted their will to compete against the Western allies. The Chinese stand at the United Nations Security Council, in which it is a member, has seen it gain popularity in the Middle East where the popularity of its competitors has been going down every new day. The Chinese influence is felt in all spheres of life. The Chinese products and services including machinery, hardware, electronic and military ware are now common in Asia, Latin America and the African continents where their biggest market lies. The Chinese have also exported their education system, their culture and art and are now selling their technology to the poor countries in fair and friendly prices. China is termed as the savior of countries affected by the American and European imposed sanctions for different political and economic reasons. Among the countries that have bought their refuge in China include Zimbabwe and Iran. Days to come, China is expected to take over the whole of the world in its hands and create a blooming market. This will be possible if the current trends are anything to go by.
The Chinese Political System
The Chinese political system has been something of controversy since the end of World War II. Viewed as the only surviving communist system in the world, the system is widely in the west for its bid to control information getting to the public domain. China is a single party nation. The party is collectively established by its communist ideologies and is embedded in the Chinese Constitution. The country is ruled by a central government which has devolved its powers to committees at all levels of the nation. However, the committees are comprised of the party members and the decision made has to review at the highest level of government. The People’s Republic of China is a vast country with people of different cultures and backgrounds. It has not been easy ruling from the capital, and the committees represent the government making the central government presence felt at the grassroots. The communist system ensures equal distribution of resources. The control of information by the government helps make it easy to rule as the government fights off any call for democracy. This would undermine the decisions made by the communist party (Stanger 2011).
The Communist Party
The communist party has around 80 million supporters within the Chinese nation. The Communist Party of China is the dominant party and is highly protected against external pressure by the constitution. Initially, the partys policies advocated for command economy and have since been relented to form the market economy. The people have the freedom to own property and choose their areas of employment and education. The central party controls the economic, social and the culture of the people. The principal role of the party is to appoint and promote personnel in different levels of government (Lucian and Mary 1985). It also ensures and enhances the implementation of all state programs and policies. The party congress is the supreme council involved in decision making in the party, and meets once in five years. It is established and embedded in the national constitution. It elects the Central Committee and other primary organs of the governing council. The party is headed by the General Secretary who is the supreme leaders. It is comprised of among other committees the military council and the disciplinary council.
The government is comprised of the central and the local governments. The central government is headed by the president who is the council chairman and who serves as the chief secretary of the armed forces of the peoples republic of china. The president is assisted by the vice president and several other premiers and is responsible for making the crucial decision about the country and its economy. The local government comprised of the municipality, the prefecture and the province. The villages are the lowest ranked and are not considered part of the ruling regions. The representatives of the communist party form part of the councils at all levels. They are usually appointed by the party and elected by the people through fair, secret ballot elections. The local and the central governments work as a system with the central government funding the operations and running of the local government (Marginson 2011). The local government is mandated with the collection of taxes and maintenance of the overhead cable services.
The Peoples Liberation Army has been established in the constitution and is mandated with defending the republic and its resources. The army was established with and under communist ideologies and is expected to uphold the same. The chairman of the ruling council who is also the president is the controller and commander of the army. The chairman of the military council is appointed by the ruling council. The Chinese economy is mandated with providing the military wear and improves its services. Today, the Chinese military is considered among the most powerful with its radar satellites outdoing the American satellites.
The Chinese economy has been termed as the second biggest after the American Economy and is expected to be the biggest by the year 2020. China has been placed as the biggest trader on the international platform. This is experienced in both the export and import market. The statistics show that, with the current trend, the Chinese economy is going to gain independence and revolve from a dependent economy to an independent, internal economy. Currently, the per capita income is around 8,394 dollars per annum and is expected to rise as the government calls for higher wages from employers and high living standards. The Chinese economy is valued to be growing at the rate of 10%. The coastal regions are the most industrialized and employing the most of the population (Wang and Zheng 2008). The hinterlands are less developed but are attaining classic market status attracting traders from all worldwide over. China has been mentioned as the worlds biggest creditor with its investors in both the private and public sector owning up to 20% of the American securities. The Chinese economy has so far surpassed the Japanese economy which had been previously viewed as its biggest competitor.
The government through its bureaucratic systems has so far above 100 departments organizing and managing its economy. These are spread in the principal economic divisions like agriculture, insurance, banking and industrialization systems. The National Peoples Congress is mandated with formulating the economic policies and implementing them through various departments. Several sectors of the economy like aviation and tourism have been left under the direct watch of the council and are controlled through its departments. The banking system is under the direct control of the government and has been mandated with the control of all currency and physical policies. Through the Chinese Central Bank and the Ministry of Finance, the government controls 90% of all the financial and currency trade within the republic. The government through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been able to negotiate on behalf of the public and the private companies for international deals. These have substantially boosted the Chinese GDP and increase its competition capacity on the international platform. The manufacturing and the construction capacity have also boosted the Chinese influence on the international market where the giant has taken up to mining and infrastructure development. This is evident in African countries like the Southern Sudan where prominent Chinese firms are involved in multi million projects, in the petroleum industries (Rajan and Rongala 2008). The government is mandated in providing the overhead cable services which cannot be handled by the private sector.
The Education System
The education system in China is divided into three with each having its distinct characteristics. The three levels are compulsory according to the Chinese constitution. The government provides for all the education needs. It has so far abolished the competitive higher education system which saw students compete for places in the institutions of higher learning in terms of ability and mental capacity. The education system is divided into pre-school, the primary school, secondary and the college level (Tay 2011). The education system has aligned in line with the economic and political aspects of the communist system of life.
This is the lowest level, and in which children join at the age of three years and stay until they are six years of age. The academic year, at this level, is made up of two semesters per academic year. After this level, the children join the elementary level at the age of about seven years.
The Secondary Schools
Secondary schools are divided into academic institutions and the vocational training schools. The Academic lower secondary schools offer purely academic training with the major exams at the end of the two years. The exams determine whether the student is to continue to the next level. The vocational training schools offer pure training to the students enabling them develops skills in different areas of technical application. At the end of the secondary season, the students are considered qualified technicians in their area of study (Marginson 2011).
The Higher Education
The higher education is in divided into two levels. The first level is what may be called a short hand college offering both academic and vocational training which does not lead to a degree. The other category is the long hand level, which takes longer and the graduate attains a degree in the area of learning. On advancing in this level, one attains a masters or PhD in their area of specialization.
These are institutions offering education to reduce illiteracy among the old who did not get a chance to attend formal education. They range from primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The government sponsors all levels in this system and encourages the old people to join. Those who pursue the adult education to the highest level end up as trained personnel in different economic factors.
Chinese Education Abroad
In order to improve its growing influence in other parts of the world, the Chinese has started exporting their way of life, culture and education to other lands. This is aimed at making the Chinese language one of the most spoken. This will help easy trade and allow China to import labor from other parts of the world. This has been experienced in the former British and French colonies (Tay 2011).
In conclusion, it would be right to say that the economic, education and political systems of the Chinese are the principal driving forces of the giants interests in the world. The communist system has been blamed for human rights abuses, but on the other, it has proved its capacity to conquer both at home and other places.
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