Energy And Matter sample essay
What are the four states of matter?
The four states of matter are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.
Using water as an example, describe how matter can change from one form to another.
Liquid to Gas (Evaporation): As heat energy is added to water molecules (boiling of water), they begin to move more rapidly and break apart from each other with more ease. They are then able to become completely separate to the point that they can float up into the atmosphere.
Liquid to Solid (Freezing): As heat energy is removed from water molecules (freezing of water), the binding together of two water molecules becomes more frequent. At water’s freezing temperature, the water molecules become bonded together so that they are stuck together and don’t move nearly as much.
What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds? Give an example of each.
Compounds and molecules constructed in living tissues are commonly called organic. Forms of matter not formed by living things are termed inorganic. Organic Compounds are found naturally within the earth. For example, water. An inorganic compound is not found naturally within the earth. It usually has to be produced. For example, drugs that are made are inorganic.
List some differences between high-quality and low-quality matter. And give an example of each.
Matter quality is determined by the usefulness of a resource. High quality matter is organized and concentrated. Low quality matter is disorganized and dispersed, often in the ocean or deep underground. High quality matter examples are solids, salts, and gasoline. Low quality matter examples are solution of salt in water, aluminum ore, and automobile emissions.
Using the law of conservation of matter, explain why there is no “away” when dealing with the issues of pollution.
According to the law of conservation of matter during a normal chemical reaction there is no increase or decrease in the quantity of matter. Pollution never will just go away. It will always resurface in another form such as acid rain or polluted well water.
What are the two major types of energy, and what is the difference between them? Give an example of each.
Potential and Kinetic energy are the two types of energy. Potential energy is energy that is stored in an object. If you stretch a rubber band, you will give it potential energy. As the rubber band is released, potential energy is changed to motion. Water stored behind a dam, the chemical energy of the food we consume, and the gasoline that we putting in our cars are all examples of potential energy.
Kinetic energy is energy of motion. A rock falling from a cliff, a bee in flight, wind blowing leaves of trees, and water following over a waterfall are all examples of kinetic energy. A rubber band flying through the air has kinetic energy. When you are walking or running your body is exhibiting kinetic energy. Potential energy is converted into kinetic energy.
Give an example of potential changing to kinetic energy.
Mineral coal or charcoal both has potential energy which is stored during photosynthesis by those plants. When we burn coal, the potential energy is converted in to kinetic energy in the form of heat and light. You can make use of it or it is dissipated in the environment.
A bullet in a gun has potential energy. When the trigger is pulled it is converted in to kinetic energy and it performs the intended work.
Distinguish between high-quality and low-quality energy, and give an example of each. Relate these terms to energy efficiency.
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. The Second Law states that energy is constantly converted from high quality to low quality. High quality energy is capable of performing a large amount of work, while low quality energy is capable of performing less work. Scientists know that energy always changes from high to low quality when work is performed.
During the change, some energy is lost in the form of heat, which cannot do work. The amount of energy lost as heat is often as high as 90 percent of the total energy involved. For example, if 1,000,000 units of solar energy were to reach Earth, one percent or 10,000 units, would be available for plants to use. Of these 10,000 units, plants would lose 90 percent, or 9,000 units, as heat.
Distinguish between the first law of thermodynamics and the second law of thermodynamics.
The first law of thermodynamics says that the total quantity of energy in the universe remains constant i.e. energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. This is the principle of the conservation of energy. The second law of thermodynamics states that the quality of this energy is degraded irreversibly. This is the principle of the degradation of energy. You can never achieve perfect energy conversion efficiencies.
Use the second law of thermodynamics to explain why energy cannot be recycled.
The second law of thermodynamics brings in an interesting term called entropy. Entropy is the reason you cannot recycle energy because if thermodynamic work is to be done at a finite rate, free energy must be expended. Rudolf Clausius stated the second law as follows, “Heat cannot of itself pass from a colder to a hotter body.” Therefore, energy must be expended in the form of entropy. In other word, energy cannot be recycled because you will lose some of the energy through entropy.
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