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Energy Equation sample essay

The digestive, respiratory and cardiovascular systems all work together to provide energy for the tissues and organs of the body. The role of the respiratory is to pass oxygen into the blood. The respiratory system oxygenates blood. Oxygen then easily diffuses from the alveoli in the lung through the epithelial walls into the bloodstream. If your body were deprived of oxygen, cells would start to die. The role of the cardiovascular system is to circulate blood around the body through the pulmonary circuit which takes blood takes up oxygen in the lungs and the systemic circuit where oxygenated blood is distributed to body tissues. Then the cardiovascular system supplies oxygenated blood to the parts that make up all three systems, allowing respiration to happen and the cells, and organs to work.

The role of the digestive system is to break down food from complex chemicals into simple chemicals that can be used as fuel. It does this using enzymes such as proteases, amylases and lipase which leaves the body with amino acids, glucose, glycerol and fatty acids which can be used around the body .The digestive system breaks down food, nutrients from the food that body needs diffuses easily through epithelial walls of the villi into capillaries and passes in the bloodstream to the organs and cells that are in need energy. The end products, carbon dioxide and water or removed from the body by the respiratory and renal system.

Describe the 6 forms of energy and explain how the body uses each form. Define what is meant by the metabolism and explain the two types. (M1) 1. Chemical- Generally chemical energy is a form of potential energy and is controlled by things such as food, fuels and batteries. Energy comes from this because of chemical reactions. Energy is stored in the food, when this is then digested the food is broken down and the energy is passed onto the cells of the body. The process of breaking down and using the food by our cells is called respiration. During respiration, the chemical energy is converted to into other types of energy such as heat and kinetic energy that the body can then use. 2. Kinetic- All moving things have kinetic energy. This energy is created by movement or motion. Heavy objects will move faster and have more kinetic energy than lighter objects. The body has kinetic energy if moving. If walking or running the body will have kinetic energy, the energy will help you take the next step.

3. Thermal- This energy comes from heat. The hotter something is the faster the particles move around therefore the more thermal energy there is. The body converts stored potential energy in the food you eat into thermal energy which keeps the body at 37.5°C. 4. Sound- Sound is vibrations which travel in waves and can be heard through different mediums. Sound is used by the body to be able to hear. The outer ear area is there to collect sound vibrations. This sound is then amplified and passed from the outer ear to the ear drum. From here auditory nerves pick up on things such as pitch and volume.

5. Electrical- Nerve impulses are the body’s electricity. The nervous system is a network of cells called neurons which transport information in the form of electrical signals around the body. 6. Light- Light Energy is the movement of photons. The sun is a major source of light. Light is needed to maintain a normal function of the body. Light and darkness are needed to control the production of melatonin, serotonin and hormones that the body needs. Sunlight is needed by the hypothalamus, pineal and other glands of the brain.

Metabolism is a group of chemical reactions that take place in the cells of the body. The metabolism changes the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed by the body, for example circuiting blood, breathing, moving and growing. Chemical reactions that occur are specific to certain proteins in the body. Metabolic reactions are constantly keeping the cells healthy and working. Thyroxine a hormone produced by the thyroid gland plays a key role in determining how fast or slow the chemical reactions of metabolism proceed in a person’s body. When food is eaten, digestive enzymes break proteins down into amino acids, fats into fatty acids and glycerol, and carbohydrates into glucose or other simple sugars. Amino acids, glucose and fatty acids are all forms of energy.

These are then absorbed by the blood and transported around the body through veins and arteries to the cells. Amino acids are used by the body for making new enzymes and some hormones, repair and growth. Amino acids cannot be stored so they are broken down by the liver and excreted by the kidneys as urine. Glucose is broken down by the internal respiration to release energy. Excess glucose is stored in the liver until it is used or converted into fat that is then stored under the skin. Glycerol and fatty acids can be used to reconvert stored fat into energy.

The two types of metabolism

Anabolism- (Constructive) This reaction makes simple chemicals into complex chemicals. This type of is for building and storing energy or fat. It helps the growth of new cells and the repairs and maintains body tissues. This type keeps energy in case the body needs it in the future. Catabolism- (Destructive) This reaction breaks downs complex chemicals into simple chemicals. In this process cells break down stored carbohydrates and fats and release them as energy in the body. This process provides fuel for anabolism. When the complex chemicals are broken down into simple ones the waste products are removed from the body through the skin, kidneys and lungs.

Describe how the systems work together. Discuss how materials move into the cardiovascular system from the alveoli and the villi. Explain how their structure makes it easier to allow this movement to happen. (D1) The fuel meaning carbohydrates or fats enter the body through the mouth; this is the start of the process through the digestive system. The digestive system breaks down complex food chemicals into simple chemicals that can be absorbed and used by the body. It does this using enzymes, these are substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions therefore can support the digestive system by breaking down food all the way through its journey. Enzymes are specific to certain substrates. Only molecules with the correct shape can fit into the enzyme. This is sometimes described as like a lock and key, only one type of enzyme can speed up a specific reaction. For example foods such as meat, eggs and nuts are all proteins.

Proteases act on proteins, breaking them down into amino acids and peptides. Amylases work on starch substrates; these are from carbohydrates such as bread, rice and pasta, breaking them down into glucose. Finally lipases change lipids to fatty acids and glycerol, which comes from fats such as dairy, red meat and oils. The end product of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and glycerol would have been broken down in different locations such as the mouth, stomach and finally duodenum. Once the fuel has been broken down into simple chemicals it will pass through the ileum. This is the remainder of the small intestine and is a major part of absorption. The ileum is covered in projections called villi which increase the surface area of intestine. Each villus has microvilli that increase the surface area even further to make more room for diffusion to take place. Inside each villus are lacteals these absorb fat and are part of the lymphatic system.

Around the villi there are many capillaries. Amino acids and simple fatty acids diffuse across the surface of the villi into the rich blood supply of the capillaries. This can happen because the inside wall of the small intestine are very thin and semi-permeable, with a large surface area. This allows absorption to happen quickly and efficiently. Once in the bloodstream it will be carried to organs and living cells which are in need via the cardiovascular system. Peptides and amino acids will be used to make enzymes and allow the metabolism to run. Glucose is used as a fuel to provide the body with energy. Fat is stored under the skin until glycerol reconverts the stored fats into energy. The next part of the energy equation is oxygen. Oxygen is brought into the body via the respiratory system. The respiratory system has three main jobs these are breathing, gas exchange and blood transport. Firstly oxygen gets into the body by breathing.

Breathing is essential because cells in the body require oxygen. The lungs are ventilated by breathing; they inflate and deflate in the chest cavity when you breathe in and out. The diaphragm contracts and flattens which makes the chest cavity push air into the lungs. Air enters the chest via the nose and mouth by the time it reaches the throat most of the unwanted particles can be removed such as dust, carbon and pathogens. The trachea is located at the start of the back of the throat and divides into two bronchi, one for each lung. Inside each lung there are many bronchioles, the bronchioles end in air sacs called alveoli. Alveoli are tiny and are bunched together in clusters to form alveolar sacs.

The walls of the alveoli are made out of very thin simple squamous epithelium. Around these sacs, on the surface, there are many capillaries that carry blood; the walls of these capillaries are also made from very thin simple squamous epithelium. This means that air that enters the alveoli during breathing is only separated from the blood by two very thin walls. Epithelium is semi-permeable which means that gases can easily pass through, due to the process of discussion, both of these walls and that is how exchange occurs. Diffusion is the movement of chemicals from a high concentration to an area of low concentration. Gas exchange is when oxygen passes out of the air into the blood, and carbon dioxide passes out of the blood into the air in the alveoli.

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/107200/The-alveoli-and-capillaries-in-the-lungs-exchange-oxygen-for Once the fuel and oxygen has been diffused into blood stream through the villi or alveoli it then gets taken around the body in the blood via the cardiovascular system. The heart pumps blood around the body through veins, arteries and capillaries. While doing this it gives living cells oxygen and at the same time removes carbon dioxide and water. The cardiovascular system therefore gives you the products of the energy equation. The product carbon dioxide, which isn’t used in the body, is removed as you exhale because of the gas exchange which happens in the lungs. The product water is either used by the body or removed by the renal system as urine or as sweat in the cooling evaporation process.

This leaves the last part of the equation, the product energy, which helps the body function. To conclude the respiration, digestive and cardiovascular systems all work together to provide energy for the tissues and organs of the body. The respiratory system oxygenates blood. Oxygen then easily diffuses from the alveoli through the epithelial walls into the bloodstream. Then the cardiovascular system supplies oxygenated blood to the parts that make up all three systems, allowing respiration to happen and the cells, and organs to work. The digestive system breaks down food, nutrients from the food that body needs diffuses easily through epithelial walls of the villi into capillaries and passes in the bloodstream to the organs and cells that are in need energy. This energy allows for respiration to occur.

Bibliography
http://www.cleareyesight.info/id59.html
http://www.spiritualgarden.net/info/human+electricity.html
http://www.eschooltoday.com/energy/kinds-of-energy/all-about-energy.html http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/

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