| Evolutionary Theories of Human Nature Essay
Human nature is the range of behaviors of human beings that is invariant over very long time periods and across various cultural contexts. It is sometimes referred to as the basic traits of humans
The concept of human evolution was first introduced by Charles Darwin who had a belief that all the humans evolved from the ape like creatures. He believed that man started as one of the species which fought for survival on the planet. He believed that man possessed some traits which enabled him to go through the natural selection filters. For instance, the intellectual and physical mans traits enabled him to surpass all over other species hence man became the greatest predator thus reduced the risks of being other species prey.
All human beings are products of evolution and human nature is a biological phenomenon. Evolution is also a social-cultural phenomenon because culture is a biological phenomenon an essential outcome of Human Nature. Therefore, the evolutionary theories are very vital in the study of human psychology and have been accepted within the Evolutionary Psychology which has resulted to the recognition of Darwin as one of the major psychologys pioneers. Charles Darwins work has generated some important fields such as, behaviorism, comparative psychology, behavioral genetics and others.
The presentation of the association of human sociobiology with Human Nature evolutionary perspective is a big problem. This is because some theoreticians do not accept the evolutionary science mainstream. For instance, they have raised several critical issues against the evolutionary explanation of the Human Nature. Evolutionary Theories of Human Nature are very significant because all the Modern Synthetic evolution theory is basically a synthesis of Charles Darwins natural selection principle. Evolution Psychology is inspired and is a synthesis of evolutionary theory. It suggests a significant psychological perspective and it is a unifying psychology paradigm. Many will see this as meaning that Evolution Psychology attempts to promote human sociobiology ideas such as the reduction of psychology to biology. Evolution psychology integrates psychology in framework that enables psychology to effectively communicate from culture to biology and it also possesses the ability to inform research theories that are incompatible with the scientific findings. It provides levels that are accepted and appreciated by many practitioners in this particular field. Evolution theories are able to create new insights about the Human Nature. This is because of their well developed implementation of the evolutionary principles through the application of the same theories in the understanding of personality disorders and normal personality.
The sharing between human beings and some social animals provide insights for the effective management such as the status seeking. Evolutionary theories explain the status seeking concept in social animal such as the human beings and it is accepted by many scientists who study the behaviors of these animals. This status seeking is significant to business ethics and management and it facilitates the competition for the ranks in a group. Human beings have the desires to have the elevated social status as compared to other social species. Human beings who occupy top ranks in societies enjoy expanded opportunities such as, to feed than the lower ranked beings. The Darwins natural selection makes status seeking is inherent because the genes of those individuals who have lesser drive for status are reduced in pool of genes. For example, keeping up with the new fashions is an ideal status seeking manifestations among the human beings. These human characteristics imply a lot to different business activities because those individuals with high potential can significantly enhance their status by committing their businesses firm to some actions even if the associated risks are many. The evolutionary theories have affected the physical and behavioral traits of human beings. Through these theories, the scientists realize that human species share some behavioral characteristics with other social animals.
Evolutionary theories are used in enhancing to total quality management. They are linked with the total quality management which is a popular technique for management. This technique sometimes fails to be successive because of the lack of commitment by the top leaders towards achieving the common set target, organizational philosophy inflexibility and workers complacency. The evolutionary theory of the human nature should be supported because they provide solutions to these problems since they provide the required guidance to problem areas. They provide guidance to top managements to inhibit the status competition and foster the altruistic opportunities through making use of team work. Secondly, the evolutionary theory perspective suggests that part of the complacency of the work teams is an unreasonable expectation on the management part. Finally, the organizational philosophy inflexibility can be easily understood from the evolutionally theories. If the total quality managements implementation is seen as a challenge to the status hierarchy in a certain firm, the ones with high status can be able to resist total quality management. The organizational philosophy inflexibility is always rooted at the top hierarchy of the organizations (Coelho P, Mcclure E & Tung E). Since the human nature does not have only one side, there is status seeking in as well as the reciprocal altruism propensity. The evolutionary perspective proposes that the top managements should make use of the team approach in fostering the reciprocal altruism. Also, the managers should cooperatively adopt the new organizational philosophies. The clear understanding of the human propensities for all the executives is crucial to their ability to form the teams among themselves through which they behave like the altruism (Jackson T. Pgs 293-295)
The human sexual behavior which is a basic element of human nature is also well explained through the evolutionary analysis. The scientists have discovered that women and men make some fundamental choices about mates as a result of genetic predispositions which are selected to maximize the probable reproductive fitness. The men tend look for young women who have the external signs such as good hair, clear skin, proportional facial features and healthy bodies (ScienceDaily).
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