Example of a Research Plan Essay
Statement of the Problem
The aim of the study is to identify the effect of different pH level of the Agar plate to the antibacterial activity of Santol (Sandoricum koet jape). Specifically, the study will seek for the answer of the question: 1.) Is there any difference on the No.of colonies after applying Santol (Sandoricum koet jape) extract on the Agar plate with pH level greater than seven (base)? 2.) Is there any difference on the No.of colonies after applying Santol (Sandoricum koet jape) extract on the Agar plate with pH level less than seven (acid)? Hypothesis
1.) There is no difference on the No.of colonies after applying Santol (Sandoricum koet jape) extract on the Agar plate with pH level greater than seven (base). 2.) There is difference on the No.of colonies after applying Santol (Sandoricum koet jape) extract on the Agar plate with pH level less than seven (acid).
Materials and Equipment
The study will make use of: Agar Plates, specifically Nutrient Agar, for different tests and as a controlled variable for the problem, Nutrient Broth, same purpose as the nutrient agar, Santol (Sandoricum koet jape) extract, Escherichia coli, for the gram positive, Bacillus , for gram negative, and Candida________ a test subject for the study. Also, the study will make use of litmus paper for measuring and maintining the pH level of the Agar plates. The study will also make use of spectrophotometry.
The study will use Complete Randomized Design as a Research Design. Control Group Design is two parallel experiments are set up, identical in all respects except that only one includes the treatment being explored by the experiment. The control group may have no treatment, with nothing happening to them, or they may have a neutral treatment.
The study will make use of ANOVA as its statistical tool. T-test can be use to compare two dependent samples/matched-pairs design experiments. The study will make use of two types of pH: Acidic and Basic. Each Agar Plate will be assign to one specific pH level.
Inoculate the microbes in the Agar and in the broth. This can be done by streaking the loop containing the gram positive, gram negative, and the fungi . Data Gathering Procedure
Prepare the Agar plate and the broth for the experimentation. The pH of the Agar and the broth must also be set.
Place the agar filled petri dishes and the broth that have been inoculated in a dark, warm (86 F) place for a week for incubation.
Apply the extract of Santol (Sandoricum koet jape) to each Agar plate and Nutrient Broth.
Using the Colony Formation Unit (CFU), determine the number of colony inhibited.
Record the data from the Agar plates and the Nutrient broth.
Figure 3.1 Experimental Procedures
Figure 3.1 Experimental Procedures shows the step by step procedure of the experiment. Starting from the preparation of the Agar plate with their assign pH level. The Agar plate will solidify at 32ºC- 40ºC but will melt at approximately 85ºC. Next is to inoculate the bacteria by streaking the loop containing the bacteria. After inoculating the bacteria, the agar plate must be incubated for one week. After the incubation of the agar plates, apply the Santol (Sandoricum koet jape) extract to the each agar plate. Each plate must receive equal amount of the extract. Using the Colony Formation Unit (CFU), determine the number of inhibited colony/ies and record the data.
pH Level of the Agar Plate| Number of Colonies|
| Trial 1Mean of Three Repetitions| Trial 2Mean of Three Repetitions| Trial 3Mean of Three Repetitions| pH 5| | | |
pH 6| | | |
pH 7| | | |
pH 8| | | |
pH 9| | | |
Figure 3.2 Interactions in Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Agar Plate Figure 3.2 shows the effect of pH levels less than seven (Acid) on the no. of colonies.
pH Level of the Nutrient Broth| Number of Colonies|
| Trial 1Mean of Three Repetitions| Trial 2Mean of Three Repetitions| Trial 3Mean of Three Repetitions| pH 1| | | |
pH 2| | | |
pH 3| | | |
pH 4| | | |
Figure 3.3 Interactions in Acidic Nutrient Broth
Shows the effect of pH levels lower than seven (Acid) on the no. of colonies. pH Level of the Nutrient Broth| Number of Colonies|
| Trial 1Mean of Three Repetitions| Trial 2Mean of Three Repetitions| Trial 3Mean of Three Repetitions| pH10| | | |
pH11| | | |
pH12| | | |
pH13| | | |
pH14| | | |
Figure 3.4. Interactions in Basic Nutrient Broth
Shows the effects of pH levels greater than seven (Basic) on the no. of colonies
* Anke, T. & Weber, D. (2009). Physiology and Genetics: Selected Basic and Applied Aspects, Volume 15. Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany * Chapelle, F. (2001). Ground-water Microbiology and Geochemistry (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Canada. * Kubitzki, K. (2011). Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Sapindales, Cucurbitals, Myrtaceae. Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. * Shahidi, F. & Ho, C. T. (2000). Phytochemicals and Phytopharmaceuticals. AOCS Press: USA. * Storz, G. & Aronis, R.H. (2000). Bacteria Stress Responses. ASM Press: USA. * “Agars.” Difco & BBL Manual. http://www.bd.com/ds/technicalCenter/inserts/Agars.pdf, accessed January 17, 2008. * “Agar Bottles – Preparation & Equipment Use.” Science Stuff, Inc. http://www.sciencestuff.com/playground/agar_bottle.shtml, accessed January 14, 2005. Mott, et al. * “Agar Bottles – Preparation & Equipment Use.” Science Stuff, Inc. http://www.sciencestuff.com/playground/agar_bottle.shtml, accessed January 14, 2005. * “Artificial Environments for Growing Bacteria.” WW Bio Institute. http://www.woodrow.org, (www.woodrow.org/teachers/esi/2002/Biology/Projects/lab_skills/ls5/), accessed January 14, 2005. * “Microbiology.” MadSci Network. http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/mar98/888937612.Mi.r.html, accessed January 25, 2005.
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