| Formulation of Policies Essay
Gender is crucial for the understanding of the health of the community. The two sexes i.e. males and females are affected differently by illnesses and have different health needs. There is need for research in order to develop better health services for both groups. Previously it has been argued that the male dominance in the society has undermined the necessity of proper women health services (Momsen, Pg 13). Hence governments advocated for a change in the health policies in order to favour women health. Men also need specific health interventions that take care of their gender. For instance gender roles have influenced men to take risk with their health in order to remain dominant and prevalent. For example indulgence in dangerous behaviours such as smoking (Momsen, Pg 43). In the past it has been argued that women have less control over health policies and programmes. Political, micro-economic, and socio-cultural factors may create inequalities. The womans biological and social cultural factors may also exacerbate the situation.
China is a developing country, with a basic state policy of ensuring equal gender equality which was adopted in 1949. The state has routinely and continuously developed policies that protect and uphold women rights. They have also developed outlines for women development. This has guaranteed equal employment to both women and men which has led to sharing of economic resources. Research in India showed that women education contributed to 8% decline in fertility. Basically education has a dynamic influence in fertility. As the study shows north India had increased fertility levels among the illiterate women whereas this was contrary to the south (Momsen, Pg 56).
Development can be measured through economic and non economic means. Economic measures of development include use of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), per capital income, infrastructure and resource inputs to production (Todaro & smith pg4). The non economic measures of development include political stability, education levels, infrastructure and health and Nutrition.
GDP (Current US $) (billions)
GNI per capita, Atlas method (Current US$)
External debt stocks(% of GNI)
Life expectancy at birth total(Years)
Population growth (Annual %)
School enrolment, primary(% net)
Surface area Sq km(thousands)
The above example shows the development details of Brazil a developing country showing how different parameters are compared to measure development (Todaro & smith pg30). The United States economy is the largest in the world. It has maintained a steady growth with a stable GDP growth rate. Employment levels are also low which explains the high per capita income. The United States economy is most influential in the global financial market.
The United Kingdom also represents a developed capitalist economy and is the third largest in Europe with a GDP of 2.674 trillion in the year 2OO8.The GDP growth is 0.3%. The country has been dominant because it was the first to industrialise. This is made up by the economies of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (Todaro & smith pg55).
The demographic transitional model is prevalent in societies that transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as part of their economic development of a country from a preindustrial to an industrialised economy (Chesnais, p5)
The DTM shows transition through four stages as depicted in the picture above. During the first stage both birth and death rates are high. On the second stage the death rate begins to drop but the birth rate is still high this stage is characterised by steady population growth..In the third stage the birth rate begins to as the death rate continues to fall here the population rises this was the case with Britain china and brazil in the 19th and 20th century. In the fourth stage the birth and death rates are both low as the population remains steady currently the USA, Sweden, Japan and Britain lie in this bracket. This model has its criticisms especially with consideration to first growing countries such as several Asian countries e.g. Malaysia (Chesnais, p30).
The financial crisis of 2007-2010 is one of the economic crises that have occurred in the recent past. The crisis has been widely covered and publicised. This crisis was induced by shortfall in liquidity in the USA banking system (Reddy pg5). Despite having occurred in the united it resulted to collapse of many global banking systems. Economies of various countries slowed down as the credit availability declined. Securities related to real estate decreased in value damaging global institutions. Investor confidence on the global market decreased.
During this period major US equities such as the S&P 500 index indeed lost 37% in the year 2008 (Reddy, pg34). The global financial crisis first affected the developed nations but later on spread to the developing world.
The effects of the global financial crisis were profound and were widespread. This started off with the onset of market instability which was caused by a variety of factors among them inability to create credit which reduced the flow of money. New economic growth was also curtailed along with disposal and acquisition of assets. Businesses and individuals used up their reserve cash and were unable to service their loans.
The housing market declined. A slump in the housing sector made mortgages unaffordable to aspiring home owners. Many mortgages defaulted which caused big losses to banks and investors.
Due to the signs that had emerged many banks restricted lending. However this was after much of the damage had been happened. Many institutions merged while others were sold out. A few were lucky enough to be bailed out by the government (Reddy pg57).
In order to resolve this problem governments and authorities undertook various measures such as formulation of policies to prevent the exacerbation of the problem. Top of the priorities was to restore hope to in the financial system. Measures undertaken soon after were geared at ensuring that financial intermediaries recapitalise. This was mainly done through mergers and direct capital injections.
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