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Functioning Of Body Systems sample essay

What is energy?

Energy can make changes possible. We use it for our every day lives, it helps to move cars over road and boats over water. Energy is also used to allow our bodies to grow, keep warm and help our minds think. Scientific define energy as the capacity to do work. Energy cannot be destroyed or created, only transported from one source to another.

Forms of energy

• Potential Energy:

Potential is the stored energy of position and the energy of position- gravitational energy. When an object is displaced from its original position and there is energy pulling it back to that position, this works with potential energy. This is when a moving object no longer has kinetic energy; it has potential energy instead.

• Chemical energy:

Is energy stored which are in the bonds of the atoms and molecules. Batteries biomass, natural gas and coal are examples of stored chemical energy. When chemical energy is burnt it is converted to thermal energy such as burning wood in a fire place. In the human body the glucose is said to have ‘chemical energy’ this is because when chemicals react with oxygen, it releases energy.

• Kinetic Energy:

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, its all about where movement happens; even it’s just a simple movement, it still has kinetic energy, like just clapping, dancing, singing, writing, talking, etc. also it’s the energy of motion. [pic]

Role of the energy in the human body
The Cardiovascular system

The human body is made up of the heart and blood vessels; it helps cooling and transportation system for the human body. The main role is to circulate blood through a network of vessel throughout the body to provide individual cells with oxygen and nutrients that help dispose OFF waste (Carbon Dioxide) The Cardiac system gives us energy in the Mitochondria.


Metabolism is a collection of chemical reactions that take place in the body’s cell. It converts the fuel in the food of which that’s eaten into the energy needed to control everything we do, from moving to thinking to growing. Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of the metabolism, and each of the chemical reaction is coordinated with their body functions. Hormones control the guidance and speed of metabolism. When a person is at rest the speed of metabolism is called basal metabolic rate, this measures the heat produced by metabolism. In the process of metabolism molecules in the digestive system break proteins down into glucose, fatty acids or amino acids, which can be used as an energy source in the body. These become absorbed into the blood, which transports them to the cells.


The process of anabolism involves simpler molecules combining together to form complex compounds. The main function involves building and storing the proteins. The cells bring together amino acids to form structural and functional proteins. The functional proteins that individually catalyze chemical reactions occur and help fight off diseases that regulate the on-going body process. Cells work in the liver and the muscle, combining molecules of glucose to form glycogen – a compound which is stored.


The process of catabolism produces energy that’s vital to all activities in the cells. It helps the breaking down of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids to keep the energy and the heat in process. As the process continues, newly digested food, storage glycogen are involved. Breaking down of the fatty acids takes place in two steps. The 1st step which is called Glycolysis, works without oxygen and it produces a small amount of energy. The 2nd stage which takes place is the stage of the Krebs cycle, in this process a series of chemical reactions from Acetyl-CoA with Oxygen, producing carbon dioxide, water and energy.

ATP= Adenosine Triphosphate, is the energy needed for cells to function and for muscles to contract. ATP is stored in the muscle and liver

Gives Energy by producing:

Carbohydrates = Digestion Glucose Fats = Fatty Acids Proteins = Amino Acids This becomes absorbed into the blood & is then transported in the cells (muscle, nerve liver). They are then used to produce ATP or it is stored ATP is stored in small amounts, therefore they are stored as: Glucose: Glycogen (Muscle & Liver)

Fatty Acids: Body Fat
Amino Acids: Growth, repair and excreted waste.

Cells in the body need energy to function

Anaerobic Energy Exercise with oxygen
Glycogen breaks down into: ATP + CO2 + H20
Using large muscle groups continuously over a period of time Aerobic Glycolisis & Fatty Acid Oxidation = The production of ATP from Carbohydrates & Fat

When exercising is fast and intense, the Cardiovascular cannot supply as much oxygen to the muscles. This is then where anaerobic exercise comes in. Short term effects of physical exercise results from occasional bursts of extra physical activity. Long term effects of physical exercise are the result of frequent physical activity which is moderate and high intensity e.g. activities that involve using lots of muscles and energy and increasing the heart-rate during the activity for at least 20-30 minutes.

Exercises without Oxygen

Breathing rate increases because of no oxygen available. Glucose is burnt to produce energy and lactic acid, lactic acid can be poison and eventually lead muscles to fatigue and can lead to a cramp, Muscle cramp is on-going, uncontrolled muscle contraction due to lack of oxygen and insufficient blood circulation and can painful. To keep the glucose active essential organs are activated: muscle and liver quickly require a large bust of energy, over a short period of time. The sports involved could be: Weight lifting or long run Anaerobic Glycolysis

Anaerobic Glycolisis is less efficient in producing ATP than Aerobic Glycolisis, But is important and needed for a large burst of energy lasting a few minutes Produces ATP from Carbohydrates without Oxygen and works in 2/3 Minutes.

Diagram for Aneorobic Respiration

Glucose Energy+ Lactic Acid

The Respiratory System

The respiratory system wokrs from the Nasal Cavity, breathing through the Nasal passages, normally. The air is then passed down the Larynx, producing sounds for speaking. It then travels down the Trachea, passing air down the trachea to the lungs. The trachea splits into two borchi’s, carrying air to each lung. The Bronchi then split into smaller tubes that distribute air to the alveoli. Air then eventually enters the millions of tiny air sacs in the lungs called th alveoli Aeorobic respiration

When exercising at a steavy and comfertable rate it helps the Cardiovascular sytem to supply the oxygen with all the oxygen they need. Glucose+oxygen energy+carbon dioxide+water Aeorobic exercise can last for long periods of time, without the person becoming breathless and loosing muscle which goes into lactic and could suffer cramps e.g. from swimming/jogging. This is when we need oxygen, so carbondioxide is breathed in.

Tidal Volume

This is the amount of air taken into the lungs during breathing when the person is at rest approximately 6 litres per minute is breathed out and exchanges during inspiration and expiration.

Vital Capacity

This is the maximum volume of air breathed in and following a maximum expiration.

Oxygen Deficit

The body is unable to supply enough O2 to the muscles that the muscles need, which is where exhaustion is reached causing immediate and reduction in strength.

Oxygen Debt

ATP Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + ENERGY + inorganic Phosphate During exercise muscles repeatedly contract and relax, using and requiring ENERGY to exercise. The energy comes from a chemical called adenosine triphosphate- also called ATP that is broken down during exercise into another chemical called Adenosine diphosphate (ADP): When there is plenty of oxygen available in the muscle tissues the Energy for muscle action is produced aerobically In anaerobic energy production, ATP is generated by converting glycogen to lactic acid. Lactic acid is a toxic substance that can only be removed from the body by the supply of further oxygen to the affected tissues – anaerobic activity leads to oxygen debt

Reference: Teachers Notes

Digestive System

The primary function for the digestive system is to break down food both mechanically and by the use of enzymes, so that it may be used for by the body for energy and cell growth and repair.


Digestion begins at the mouth: the teeth cut and grind food into smaller particles that can be swallowed in the saliva, carbohydrates begin to break down the food.


Once you swallow, the food moves into the Oesophagus where the continual waves of involuntary contraction pushes it way down to the stomach.


As the food enters the stomach the stomach muscles relax to allow a large volume of food to be stored. The stomach muscles churn and mix the food with acids and enzymes, breaking it into much smaller, more digestible pieces.

Small Intestines:

Enzymes are increased to break down food from the pancreas and glands, breaking the proteins and carbohydrates. It also gets mixed with the product of the liver which helps break down all the fats in our body aiding digestion.

Large Intestines:

The large intestines continue the food journey, absorbing any water or mineral still remaining. The rest of the content is waste, which is then passed through the rectum where it is stored until they leave the digestive system through the anus as a bowel movement.

Homeostatic Roles:

• Supplies energy for life’s activities.
• Supplies building blocks for macromolecules

Stages of food processing
This is the process of eating. Which begins when places the food in the mouth or the oral
Digestion is the process where ingested food is broken down into a form that
can then be absorbed and assimilated into the tissues of the body.

Digestion includes two types of processes
• Mechanical (e.g. chewing, grinding, churning, mixing)
• Chemical (e.g. enzymes breaking down of food)

• Digested food is absorbed into the bodily fluids blood and lymph. The small intestine increases its surface area and the rate of absorption. Digestive food is broken down by simple sugars, amino acids, etc. which then enter the bloodstream.

• Undigested food materials are discharged from body.

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