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Industrial Revolution In Great Britain sample essay

The Industrial Revolution touched all over the world with an unprecedented degree bringing their economic, social, political and cultural spheres in its domain. Started in England in 18th and 19th century, it brought a complete change to the economy of England transferring it from agrarian to Industrial Economy. All the important centers were flourishing with the Mills and factories, and whole of England hummed with the rattle of looms and the boom of weaving machines. It was a period of intellectual thoughts and scientific innovations.

Science once a sealed book saved to an elect few was democratized, and more and more scientific enthusiasts dedicated themselves to the popularization of scientific works like Darwin’s origin of species. The man of science was no longer an academic recluse, but a social figure exercising a deep and profound influence on the social and educational life of the age. Industrial revolution also swept with its broom of scientific inventions, the old conventions of the England, European and American Society.

As Harold Perkin said, “the Industrial Revolution was no mere sequence of changes in industrial techniques and production, but a social revolution with social causes as well as profound social effects. ”1 According to an Economic historian, “In 1960 it was England which first brought into effect, “The takeoff into self-sustained growth. ” 2 Till the end of the nineteenth century England was the “Workshop of the World,” and after that Germany, Japan and United States took over. Over and above Industrial Revolution also reflected the capacity of man to overcome nature. 1.

The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History, The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England, Last Revised: October 11, 2006 Retrieved 23 April 2007 < http://www. historyguide. org/intellect/lecture17a. html> 2. ibid. In 17th century Father of Modern Science, Francis Bacon (1561-1626) even said that natural philosophy which is called as Science could be applied to solve all the practical problems faced by man. He raised the question how the man could attain perfect freedom if he had to labour to supply the necessities of existence and the answer was obviously, with the help of machines.

These devices could free the mankind from excessive pressures of labour, which could be utilized in some other useful and productive purpose. 1 In 1745, Benjamin Franklin’s Fluid theory was a scientific revolution which led to the birth of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700s. This Fluid theory was also called as Franklin’s theory of the Matter of Electricity and of Heat. After that there were spurt of inventions that led the world to take the shape where we are sitting now. 2 When the Industrial revolution was at its adolescent stage, the important source of power that was commonly used was coal followed by Iron and Steam.

They were predominantly in use by brewing, metalworking, and glass and ceramics industries. The English industrialist Abraham Darby used high-carbon, which was converted form of coal and produced iron from iron ore. This coke became a good substitute of charcoal and the Metal makers used coal and coke abundantly to produce raw iron, bar iron, and other metals. 3 The invention of Steam engine to pump water was the greatest invention ever, which was first invented by an English engineer Thomas Savery in 1689 to pump water from mines. In 1712 Thomas Newcomen invented its improvised version. 4 1.

The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History, The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England, Last Revised: October 11, 2006 Retrieved 23 April 2007 Cort’s puddling process, which was invented in Wales in 1784, was responsible for the increase in the rate of iron production and became so popular in Wales that it came to be known as the Welsh method. Bersham also invented cylinders, which were predominantly used in Watt’s engines and the ironworks being carried out in South Wales.

In Wales only the first experiment of Locomotion was conducted and also supplied fuel for steam engines. 1 The new era of railways started in Wales only with Richard Trevithick, a Cornish engineer, who on 21st February 1804, ran a steam engine from Merthyr Tydfil to Abercynon. This train pulled 10 tons of iron and seventy passengers who jumped on it to take their first ride in the World, 2 later it was embraced by George Stephenson who was an engineer in the mining industry. He started the steam engines that pulled wagons up from the pit face. After this development he built a locomotive in 1814.

George Stephenson was also appointed as a chief engineer of first railways between Stockton and Darlington. He later manufactured the famous ‘Rocket’, between Manchester to Liverpool line in 1830. 3 Though this Industrial revolution brought material advancement and Industrial progress yet spread the social unrest and economic distress. On one hand it created the privilege class of capitalists and mill owners but also brought in its wake the semi starved and ill class of labourers. As and as there were increase in Factories the people were shifting towards cities and towns.

The cities increased to more than 20,000 and of Wales increased from 12 in 1800 to 200 at the end of the century. 4 1. bbc. co. uk, Wales History, Retrieved 23 April 2007, http://www. bbc. co. uk/wales/history/sites/nation/pages/industrial_revolution02. shtml 2. Wisdom and walks in the valleys of Southwales, Heroes of the Industrial Revolution, Retrieved 23 April 2007 < http://www. wisdomandwalks. co. uk/products. asp? ProductID=1> 3. SchoolsHistory. org. uk, Inventions that fuelled the Industrial Revolution Retrieved 23 April 2007 http://www. schoolshistory. org.

uk/IndustrialRevolution/inventions. htm 4 David E. Newton, “Industrial Revolution-Effects Of The Industrial Revolution” Science Encyclopedia Vol. 3 Retrieved 23 April 2007 This abject suffering, which labor class had to go through was an edible proof of the fact that Industrial Revolution was more of a curse than a boon. The whole landscape of Wales gave a look of devastated “Waste Land” with coal -mines, factories and mills churning out steams reducing the beauty of the nature to the elbow edge.

The safety devices were very meager causing deaths and accidents. There were every year 43,000 cases of widow hood, and 112,000 cases of destitute orphanage in England and Wales alone. 1 With all this the growing importance of masses and the large number of Factory hands gave a spurt to the Reform Bills in the form of Factory Acts to give some relief to the children and women. 2 The Industrial revolution also opened the doors for women now finding their place in textile Industries, work shops and even in coal mines. In Wales the population in the quarrying sector became three times more.

3 Group of Non-conformist quarrymen constructed a chapel in their working area which they called by the name of Bethesda and it went on increasing with the population of 8,291 in 1881 in the Parish of Llanllechid compared to 1332 in 1801. 4 The living standard of the people had also considerably changed and they were living in either cottagers, or stone strewn slopes, such as Cilgwyn, or living in terraced houses, such as in Bethesda or Blaenau Ffestiniog. Only few had gardens and pigsty at the other end of the house. The wages of workers varied between 8d (3?

p) to 1/- (5p) per day and the copper miners at Mynydd Parys were getting from 1/- to 1/8 per day. 5 1. Everything 2, The Industrial Revolution: Blessing or curse for the working class? Retrieved 23 April, 2007 2. Industrial Revolution, Retrieved 23 April, 2007 3. SchoolsHistory. org. uk, Working Conditions in the Industrial Revolution Retrieved 23 April 2007 < http://www. schoolshistory. org. uk/IndustrialRevolution/workingconditions. htm> 4.

Women in History World, The Plight of Women’s Work in the EarlyIndustrial Revolution in England and Wales Retrieved 23 April , 2007 < http://www. womeninworldhistory. com/lesson7. html> 5. Slatesite, The History of Quarrying – The Industrial Revolution, Retrieved 23 April, 2007 Both the Industrial Revolution and Scientific advancement brought a complex society with social problems on one hand and democratic consciousness on the other. There was a conflict between aristocracy and plutocracy as well as democracy and socialism.

The last vestige of personal government and divine rights of rulers vanished and the House of Commons became the ruling power.WORKS CITED

1. bbc. co. uk, Wales History, Retrieved 23 April 2007 3. Industrial Revolution, Retrieved 23 April, 2007 5. Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2007, Industrial Revolution, Retrieved 23 April 2007 http://encarta. msn. com/encyclopedia_761577952_5/Industrial_Revolution. html#howtocite 6. Newton E. David, “Industrial Revolution-Effects Of The Industrial Revolution” Science Encyclopedia Vol. 3, Retrieved 23 April 2007 http://science.

jrank. org/pages/3574/Industrial-Revolution-Effects-Industrial- Revolution. html> 7. Slatesite, The History of Quarrying – The Industrial Revolution, Retrieved 23 April, 2007 8. SchoolsHistory. org. uk, Working Conditions in the Industrial Revolution Retrieved 23 April 2007 9. SchoolsHistory. org. uk, Inventions that fuelled the Industrial Revolution Retrieved 23 April 2007 http://www. schoolshistory. org. uk/IndustrialRevolution/inventions.

htm 10. The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History, The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England, Last Revised: October 11, 2006 Retrieved 23 April 2007 11. Wisdom and walks in the valleys of Southwales, Heroes of the Industrial Revolution, Retrieved 23 April 2007 12. Women in History World, The Plight of Women’s Work in the EarlyIndustrial Revolution in England and Wales Retrieved 23 April, 2007

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