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phi 208 final exam


Question 1. 1. According to Caroline Heldman, which of the following is a question that applies to her sexual object test? (Points : 1)

      [removed] Does the image show people having sex?
      [removed] Does the image show a person as something that can be bought or sold?
      [removed] Does the image display a full image of a woman?
      [removed] Does the image display violence against people in the image?


Question 2. 2. What would best express Colonel Nicholson’s (Alec Guinness) view regarding what makes a soldier, as expressed in the The Bridge on the River Kwai clip? (Points : 1)

      [removed] The virtues of a good soldier are consistent no matter the circumstance.
      [removed] A good solider only acts virtuously when it benefits himself and his country.
      [removed] The good soldier regards the enemy as having less intrinsic worth than one’s own people.
      [removed] All of the above.


Question 3. 3. In 2003, how many people died in Canada, according to the video “Dying for Care: Quality Palliative and End of Life Care in Canada”? (Points : 1)

      [removed] 350,000
      [removed] 2.2 million
      [removed] 750,000
      [removed] 226,000


Question 4. 4. What is Tom Regan’s position about the use of animals in research and agriculture? (Points : 1)

      [removed] Animals should be used whenever it can be proven that the human benefits outweigh the harms caused to the animals
      [removed] Animals should never be used for medical research or commercial agriculture
      [removed] Animals should only be used for medical research shown to be beneficial to humanity, never for agriculture
      [removed] Animals should be used in both medical research and agriculture but should be treated as humanely as possible


Question 5. 5. According to the video, “Religion, War, and Violence,” for a war to be considered just, it must (Points : 1)

      [removed] be aimed at repelling aggression
      [removed] have a strong probability of success
      [removed] must be only used as a last resort
      [removed] all of the above


Question 6. 6. In the Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals we find that to act on ‘duty’ is (Points : 1)

      [removed] to act from a self-seeking purpose
      [removed] to act because you want to
      [removed] to act out of respect for law
      [removed] to act out of the fear of God


Question 7. 7. The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it (Points : 1)

      [removed] Intelligence
      [removed] Invincibility
      [removed] Invisibility
      [removed] Wisdom


Question 8. 8. What is Tom Regan’s main criticism of the contractarian approach to ethical duties? (Points : 1)

      [removed] It works fine for humans without problems, but it has not yet been applied to animals
      [removed] It ignores the importance of pain and suffering when it comes to ethics
      [removed] It would allow all kinds of human injustice if a stronger group is able to oppress the members of a weaker group of people
      [removed] He does not criticize it; he things that contractarianism, if properly understood, represents the most rational approach to ethical problems


Question 9. 9. Tom Regan’s view of animals is that (Points : 1)

      [removed] They are important but not quite as important as human beings
      [removed] They have rights, which means that they should never be used for human purposes
      [removed] They may be ethically used because they were bred and raised for that purpose
      [removed] That they may be eaten because do not have souls like we do and are lower on the food chain


Question 10. 10. Kant explains that respect for a person is: (Points : 1)

      [removed] the recognition of the worth of the person’s potential contribution to society.
      [removed] dependent upon whether the person respects others.
      [removed] both A and B
      [removed] none of the above.


Question 11. 11. According to Kant, the moral worth of an action: (Points : 1)

      [removed] lies in its conformity to the moral law.
      [removed] lies in the value of the expected result.
      [removed] lies in its conformity to God’s commands.
      [removed] lies in its usefulness to society.


Question 12. 12. According to Robinson, a person who has integrity is someone who: (Points : 1)

      [removed] Does what is right, only if it is approved of by others
      [removed] Does what is right, even when it is disapproved of by others
      [removed] Does what is right, only when commanded to do so
      [removed] Does what is right, unless they are commanded to do otherwise
      [removed] None of the above


Question 13. 13. Kenneth Anderson argues that the fact that drones make the resort to force easier (Points : 1)

      [removed] means that enemies will always be too afraid to attack us
      [removed] does not mean that drones make the resort to force too easy
      [removed] means that we should instead favor cruise missiles
      [removed] all of the above


Question 14. 14. Gilligan claims that females tend to see relationships as these (Points : 1)

      [removed] hierarchies
      [removed] webs
      [removed] rules
      [removed] duties


Question 15. 15. The conventional doctrine is endorsed by: (Points : 1)

      [removed] Rachels.
      [removed] the American Medical Association.
      [removed] both a and b.
      [removed] neither a nor b.


Question 16. 16. In the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective,” Jeremy Waldron argues that drones are not ethical because their use involves (Points : 1)

      [removed] total transparency and accountability
      [removed] the assurance that only combatants will be targeted
      [removed] the maintenance of a secret death list by government authorities
      [removed] all of the above


Question 17. 17. This product was pulled from Abercrombie and Fitch stores based on protests through a blog (Points : 1)

      [removed] lingerie
      [removed] deep V-neck t-shirts
      [removed] padded swimsuit tops for toddlers
      [removed] yoga pants


Question 18. 18. Glaukon seems to think that people are (Points : 1)

      [removed] Naturally benevolent
      [removed] Naturally pious
      [removed] Naturally just
      [removed] Naturally egocentric


Question 19. 19. According to John Stuart Mill, utilitarianism takes into account the happiness of: (Points : 1)

      [removed] only the agent.
      [removed] only the agent and those the agent cares about.
      [removed] everyone, but weights the happiness of the agent more heavily.
      [removed] everyone, and weights everyone’s happiness equally.


Question 20. 20. Kant argues that when I find someone in need: (Points : 1)

      [removed] I should give whatever spare resources I have unless it makes me worse off than the person I’m trying to help.
      [removed] I should consider a world in which no one helped me when I was in need, recognize that I could never will such a world, and help them in the best way that I can.
      [removed] I should sympathize with them, but recognize that the world is better off overall if we each only look after our own interests.
      [removed] I should remember that as autonomous beings they are responsible for their own situation, and thus that I have no responsibility to help them out.


Question 21. 21. Which of the following would be an expression of rule utilitarianism, rather than act utilitarianism? (Points : 1)

      [removed] “It’s okay to torture this person because it may save thousands of lives.”
      [removed] “It’s immoral to torture this person because the pain it would cause him outweighs any potential benefits.”
      [removed] “Even if torturing this person right now might be beneficial, the overall consequences of permitting torture would be harmful, and so we shouldn’t allow it in any circumstance.”
      [removed] “We shouldn’t torture this person because we wouldn’t want him torturing us.”


Question 22. 22. Robinson describes magnanimity as the mean between the extremes of: (Points : 1)

      [removed] Vanity and vice
      [removed] Generosity and selfishness
      [removed] Generosity and greed
      [removed] Vanity and pusillanimity
      [removed] None of the above


Question 23. 23. What moral theory does Jeremy Bentham (with whom Singer seems to agree) endorse? (Points : 1)

      [removed] Moral relativism
      [removed] Anarchism
      [removed] Utilitarianism
      [removed] Social Contract Theory


Question 24. 24. In the article “War and Massacre,” Thomas Nagel argues that moral absolutism (Points : 1)

      [removed] is consistent with the principles of utilitarianism
      [removed] can be used to justify genocide
      [removed] is primarily concerned with what a person is doing
      [removed] is primarily concerned with the outcome of a person’s actions


Question 25. 25. Midgley analyzes the position that each society is a separate culture with its own values. This position is known as (Points : 1)

      [removed] Moral relativism
      [removed] Moral isolationism
      [removed] Moral structuralism
      [removed] Moral voluntarism


Question 26. 26. Rachels claims that most actual cases of killing: (Points : 1)

      [removed] are morally worse than most actual cases of letting die.
      [removed] are morally the same most actual cases of letting die.
      [removed] are morally less bad than most actual cases of letting die.
      [removed] are morally required.


Question 27. 27. According to Leon Kass, the drive to legalize euthanasia can be largely attributed to (Points : 1)

      [removed] the rise in a largely technical approach to healing.
      [removed] an increase in our sympathy.
      [removed] an increased respect for human dignity.
      [removed] the secularization of modern society.


Question 28. 28. Nagel argues that the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki were just like what other kind of action, just on a larger scale? (Points : 1)

      [removed] Killing the wife and child of someone attacking you in order to distract him from his attack.
      [removed] Bombing a munitions factory and killing some of the civilian workers inside.
      [removed] Firing at an enemy soldier and hitting an innocent bystander with a stray bullet.
      [removed] Bombing a convoy of enemy soldiers. 


Question 29. 29. Rachels claims that active euthanasia: (Points : 1)

      [removed] sometimes leads to more suffering than passive euthanasia.
      [removed] sometimes leads to the same amount of suffering as passive euthanasia.
      [removed] sometimes leads to less suffering than passive euthanasia.
      [removed] all of the above.


Question 30. 30. Robinson agrees with Aquinas’ idea that (Points : 1)

      [removed] Honor is a subjective quality
      [removed] Honor is secondary to integrity
      [removed] Honor must be displayed in action
      [removed] Honor is secondary to magnanimity
      [removed] None of the above


Question 31. 31. Rachels claims that once it has been decided that euthanasia is desirable in a case: (Points : 1)

      [removed] a moral error has already been made.
      [removed] it has been decided that death is no greater an evil than the patient’s continued existence.
      [removed] it has been decided that the patient does not have a right to life.
      [removed] the amount of suffering of the patient becomes irrelevant.


Question 32. 32. Aristotle regards passions and feelings like anger as: (Points : 1)

      [removed] a sign that one lacks rational control over one’s state of mind.
      [removed] always either an excess or a defect in one’s character.
      [removed] capable of excess, defect, or the intermediate state characteristic of virtue.
      [removed] Both (a) and (b).


Question 33. 33. Michael Walzer argues that in the unique world of war, both morality and authority are (Points : 1)

      [removed] radically contested
      [removed] established by rules of war
      [removed] established by neutral states
      [removed] none of the above


Question 34. 34. James Rachels points out that when passive euthanasia is employed on infants, they typically die of: (Points : 1)

      [removed] poisoning.
      [removed] SARS.
      [removed] suffocation.
      [removed] dehydration and infection.


Question 35. 35. According to Colin Stokes, in this film all the heroic, wise, and villainous characters are female. (Points : 1)

      [removed] The Little Mermaid
      [removed] Star Wars
      [removed] The Wizard of Oz
      [removed] Les Miserables


Question 36. 36. This is the name for prostitutes in India who have been dedicated to a female goddess (Points : 1)

      [removed] Hindus
      [removed] Hiermala
      [removed] Devadasi
      [removed] Sangli


Question 37. 37. Kant claims that the moral law is given to each person by: (Points : 1)

      [removed] God’s commands.
      [removed] one’s own rational will.
      [removed] one’s natural desires.
      [removed] social conditioning.


Question 38. 38. What does Tom Regan say about the cruelty/kindness approach to animal ethics? (Points : 1)

      [removed] The best way to explain animal ethics is in terms of our obligation to be kind and not cruel to animals
      [removed] It is inadequate because it is possible to do wrong while being kind, and it is possible to do wrong without being deliberately cruel
      [removed] It has no relevance to animal ethics because animals are cruel to each other
      [removed] You have to be cruel to be kind, in the right measure


Question 39. 39. Hill claims that a fruitful way to think about the badness of destroying the environment is: (Points : 1)

      [removed] To think about what kind of human would choose to destroy the eart

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