Psy 360/psy360 Week 3 Quiz 1 When We Cannot Retrieve Information

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Psy 360/psy360 Week 3 Quiz 1 When We Cannot Retrieve Information

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1. When we cannot retrieve information from memory, we say that _____ has occurred.
A. forgetting
B. a money trace
C. sensory decay
D. encoding failure
E. secondary memory
2. Unattended information is stored briefly in:
A. sensory memory
B. short-term memory
C. long-term memory
D. working memory
E. secondary memory
3. The central executive in working memory is hypothesized to have the function of:
A. directing the flow of information
B. controlling an unlimited amount of resources and capacity
C. carrying out subvocal rehearsal to maintain verbal material in memory
D. maintaining visual material in memory through visualization
E. storing the meaning of complex verbal material
4. Words from the beginning of a list are more likely to be recalled than words from the middle of the list. This phenomenon is known as the _____ effect.
A. recency
B. primacy
C. forgetting
D. interference
E. memory trace
5. One basic physiological mechanism for learning is the ____ rule, which states that if a synapse between two neurons is repeatedly activated at about the same time the postsynaptic neuron fires, the chemistry of the synapse changes.
A. Carlson
B. Hebb
C. Baddeley
D. Tulving
E. icon
6. The term “anterograde amnesia” refers to:
A. the loss of the ability to form new memories
B. the loss of the ability to recall old events
C. the loss of short-term memory
D. the loss of sensory memory
E. the loss of all memory ability
7. The _____ component of working memory is thought to be a temporary storage system that interacts with long-term memory and the other components of working memory to facilitate the transfer of information to long-term memory.
A. episodic buffer
B. visuospatial sketchpad
C. central executive
D. phonological loop
E. semantic buffer
8. Sensory memories exist for every sensory modality.
A. True
B. False
9. Psychologists believe that the capacity of long-term memory is:
A. unlimited
B. 7 + 2 items
C. 18 items
D. 5000 items
E. 50,000 items
10. The code in long-term memory is based on:
A. sound
B. visual imagery
C. meaning
D. both sound and visual imagery
E. both sound and meaning
11. Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve demonstrates that:
A. forgetting is rapid at first and then levels off
B. forgetting is slow at first and then speeds up
C. forgetting occurs at a steady pace, beginning immediately after learning
D. no forgetting occurs until 24 hours after learning
E. forgetting reaches a peak about 3 days after learning

12. Proactive interference refers to the fact that:
A. new material can disrupt the recall of previously learned material
B. previously learned material can disrupt the learning of new material
C. the passage of time leads to memory decay
D. active interference can strengthen a memory trace
E. memories can become stronger over time
13. According to the retrieval cue explanation of interference, you are more likely to forget where you parked your car in a lot where:
A. you have never parked before
B. you have always parked in the same place
C. you have parked frequently, but in many different spaces
D. you parked a year ago, but not more recently
E. you parked yesterday
14. “Cramming” for exams tends to be ineffective because of the:
A. chunking effect
B. spacing effect
C. state-dependence effect
D. context effect
E. encoding specificity effect
15. Your memory of your first college lecture would be an example of:
Studies of flashbulb memory indicate that
A. stronger emotional responses to an event are associated with less detailed memories
B. more retellings of the event are associated with more accurate memories
C. flashbulb memories are no more accurate than memories for more mundane life events
D. people are less confident in the accuracy of flashbulb memories than they are about more ordinary memories
E. flashbulb memories are only created for positive emotional events
16. Studies of eyewitness memory:
A. support Bartlett’s idea of memory as a constructive process
B. reveal surprisingly accurate memories of stressful events
C. suggest that confidence is an important attribute of an accurate witness
D. show that witnesses are remarkably resistant to misleading information
E. help us to understand why eyewitnesses almost never make mistakes
17. Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm, researchers have shown that 80% of participants remember words on a list that were not actually included.
A. True
B. False
18. In Reber’s studies of nonanalytic concept formation in which participants attempted to learn to categorize letter strings derived from complex “grammars,”
A. participants who learned letter strings that followed the grammar made fewer errors than control participants learning random strings
B. participants who were told that the letter strings followed complex rules performed better than did those participants who did not know this
C. the best performance came from participants who successfully figured out the rule for generating the letter strings
D. memorizing exemplars was an ineffective strategy in category learning
E. performance never rose above chance level for any participants
19. The schema view of concept formation assumes that:
A. there are clear boundaries among individual schemata
B. there is cognitive economy among concepts
C. information is abstracted across instances
D. no information is stored about actual instances
E. schemata contain characteristics of categories, but no information about how categories are related to each other
20. You might have a “script” for:
A. what a classroom looks like
B. what a “pet” is
C. what a “cat” is
D. what happens when you go to the barber/hairstylist
E. what rap music sounds like
21. If information from a story is presented in scrambled order,
A. people actually recall it better than if it had been presented in proper order, because they pay more attention to it
B. people recall just as much information as if it had been presented in proper order
C. people tend to recall it in the scripted order
D. people cannot recall any of the details of the story
E. we cannot predict how much will be recalled, or in what order
22. “Apple,” “piano,” and “table” are examples of basic-level categories.
A. True
B. False
23. Properties and facts are stored at the highest level possible, according to the principle of:
A. encoding specificity
B. connectionism
C. cognitive economy
D. typicality
E. lexical destiny
24. Conrad has found evidence that the statement “A shark can move” can be verified in the same amount of time as “An animal can move.” These results suggest that reaction time is best predicted by:
A. cognitive economy
B. frequency of association
C. encoding specificity
D. episodic memory
E. typicality
25. The word superiority effect is related to the idea of:
A. cognitive economy
B. schemata
C. typicality
D. spreading activation
E. prototypes
26. ACT models distinguish among three types of memory systems:
A. working memory, episodic memory, and declarative memory
B. semantic memory, episodic memory, and procedural memory
C. procedural memory, declarative memory, and semantic memory
D. working memory, declarative memory, and procedural memory
E. semantic memory, episodic memory, and concept memory
27. Which of the following is FALSE regarding a connectionist training “epoch”?
A. It begins by generating a random output.
B. Connection weights are initially set at random levels.
C. Generated output patterns are compared with target patterns.
D. Back propagation occurs over many trials.
E. Connection weights are adjusted before the next target is input.

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