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Public communication Ethics Case studies sample essay

The International Smart Tan is a global synergetic consortium that has been committed to promoting as well as researching on responsible skin care for people who develop sunburns and tans. It teaches on methods of minimizing the risks that are associated with too little or too much sunlight (Tanning, 2008). Ultra Violet Radiation has been widely recognized as being carcinogenic thus causing various types of skin cancer. Exposure during the early years during adolescence and childhood are crucial as far as risks of skin cancers are concerned.

Traditionally the major source of UVR exposures in the tanning purposes have been rays from the sun though tanning equipments have now represented amplified importance to sources of exposure mostly to the young adults and adolescents. This exposure amplifies the risks of melanoma. Most of the suns scare activists profit through marketing the distorted sun abstinence message to the public. Therefore grassroots health is the main organization that is fully committed in offering education on Vitamin D through launching a global public health campaign in order to solve the epidemic of Vitamin D deficiency.

Therefore it is imperative to discuss how potter’s model is applicable in this case study, the ethical theories behind it and how I would communicate my position as far as the case study is concerned. Constant changes in the public health and the society have forced most health professionals to engage into some new roles and develop new competencies. Public health practitioners ought to be trained in order to respond to such challenges. Porter’s model of pure competition implies on the fact that the risks rates ought to be constant across industries and firms (Strategic management, 2010).

His framework model assumes that industries are usually influenced by some forces. These forces are rivalry, threat of substitutes, buyer power, supplier power and threat of entry. Smart Tanning in order to pursue some advantage over its rivals had to improve on their communication strategies. They emphasized on the importance of vitamin D and its sufficient risks. They also exploited relationships with the other counterparts like the public health practitioners. As far as the buyer power is concerned, the relationship that the public have with Smart Tanning is amplifying and almost to monopsony level.

Also there is a concept of supplier power as Smart tanning has some relationships with the hospitals thus suppliers are concentrated. They also face barriers because of government regulations that prompt them to offer the right information in order to uplift right health communication on causes of skin cancers and how effectively it can be solved. Strategy in Smart Tanning can be formulated on business, functional and corporate level. The business level is the major context as far as industry rivalry is concerned thus focus, differentiation and cost leadership ought to be implemented in order to create a competitive advantage.

The generic strategies will help Smart Tanning to leverage its main strengths and defend on the serious effects of the forces. Some of the ethical theories that can be applied are the moral theory, utilitarian, virtue theories and others. Smart tanning has applied the utilitarian theory as it has focused on making everybody concerned and mostly the consumers happy. It has demonstrated that they have high standards when it comes to consumer education, employee training as well as the public welfare against fighting skin cancer.

The moral and virtue theory has been used on the grounds that the tanning association has come with moral strategies to make sure that the public is not affected but rather are being helped. It has amplified the comprehension of professional tanning that moderates ultra-violet exposures from outdoor and indoor tanning that does recognize the manageable risks as well as benefits that are associated with the ultraviolet exposures of the light. The other is rational theory as tanning industry is quite effective on teaching about the prevention of sunburn than those who are after promoting sun avoidance.

My personal take on this case study is that tanning industry is imperative as it will help in reducing skin cancers. However, there is loss of perspective that there are other psychological and physiological benefits that are also associated with sunlight that needs more research and the fact that most risks bare manageable for all people who have got the aptitude of developing a tan and for most people benefits of sun exposure do outweigh most risks that are associated with being overexposed. Also to a large extent it is crucial as smart tanning means comprehending both risks and benefits of sunlight.

B. Right to Know vs. Personal Privacy (Ch. 5, Case 19, the Controversial Patriot Act) Tensions between public information and personal privacy will undoubtedly never ebb. Privacy issues do revolve on the conflict between the right of the public to know about something and the citizens’ right to keep the information to themselves (Joseph. , Robert & Lucinda, 2008, pp. 121). It is therefore crucial to give limelight to some of the controversies that emerged in the Patriot Act which most address on information sharing.

The Patriot Act was initially designed in order to enhance the investigations on federal anti-terrorism. However, the opponents of the senate asserted that the changes in the Act have failed to sufficiently address on the concerns of civil liberties with the raise of provisions. Section 203 (b and d) allows for information from the criminals to be shared with the intelligence agents as well as other government’s bodies (NPR, 2010). However, the major controversy is that most critics believe that the unrestricted sharing might lead to development of intense databases on citizens who are not the main targets of crime.

The supporters however assert that the provisions will enhance sharing of information within the intelligence community as well as the FBI. Section 206 (NPR, 2010) allows for the wire tap authorization in order to cover many devices and eliminates the need for court authorizations to a suspect’s PC, cell phone as well as blackberry. The critics affirm that the language in the Act might lead to violations of privacy to anybody who might come into contact with a suspect. On the other hand, the government asserts that roving wiretaps are needed in order to deal with the sophisticated technological terrorists.

Section 215 allows for easy access of business records (NPR, 2010). However, the critics attack this provision saying that the law can be used to order for reading records of bookstore patrons or library. On the other hand, the supporters allege that the provision will allow the investigators in obtaining documents that are connected to terror. Section (213) allows for the sneak and peek warrants where critics aver that the provision allows for search even for minor crimes apart from the espionage and terror crimes.

The supporters assert that this provision allows investigators to search houses of criminals. Porter’s five competitive forces model are to a large extent applicable in this case study. As far as entry of competitors is concerned, it is very difficult for the government to implement on the provisions and receive full support with the major controversies that are emerging in the sections of the provisions. The critics will easily continue to criticize the provisions as long as there are questionable loopholes that raise concerns on mistakes, misuse and invasion of privacy.

The Patriot Act is also under threat of being substituted or implemented to another that fits every citizen if it not properly defined by the government. The bargaining power of the buyers who are public in this case is quite strong and it will be difficult for them to work together unless the provisions are changed to adapt to everybody’s preference and for the good of all. There is a strong competition and argument between the government supporters and the critics because of the barriers created by critics.

One of the ethical theories that are in relation to this is the utilitarian theory which seeks the happiness of the majority. The provisions should be implemented in a way that suit everybody and brings happiness to the majority if not to all people. The controversial issues are immense as they touch on privacy concept that ought to be reinforced and respected. The other is consequentialist or teleological theory that views on what ought to be done determined by the consequences. The government should analyze on some of the effects of these provisions. The other is moral duty.

Any act of rule is proper as long as it satisfies all the demands of the overriding or non consequentialist principles of morality. The deontology theory also stresses that any value of any action does lie in motives instead of the consequences. All these theories do apply the issue as the government should aim at maximizing happiness, acting morally, focus on the consequences of the actions as well as make their motives known to the public to create acceptance. As far as am concerned, under the guise of the Patriot Act and in the name of defending freedom and fighting terrorism, The Act is doing neither.

It is suppressing the rights of the Americans to dissent as it gives the government power to go ahead and conduct some secret trials as well as executions. For all who seek in preserving the democracy in USA, it is vital to consider all people rationally. Defense on democracy starts at home and there ought to be realization of democracy and freedom which the Act is quite antithetical to all. Since the inception of the Act, it has been shrouded with controversies and it is fair to have a clear and closer look to the consequences of the Act.

This is an Act that will abuse access of private information as no one is in a position to define what suspicious behavior constitutes. The Act is a mere unpatriotic way of limiting the civil rights, infringing on the free communication or speech, interfering with freedom and infringing the citizen’s privacy rights. C. Media Interests vs. Community Interests; Ch. 9, Case 39, Gatekeepers II: Opening the Door) The broad concept of public interest is quite familiar to most people and is usually considered as defense from media intrusion of people’s privacy under certain circumstances.

Most things constitute the public interest in a vulnerable rather than what can be deemed as strong sense. Where something or an information might be seen to affect only one person, it might be in public interest incase the effect usually involves other principles that will have adverse effect on the population for example the abuse of power or a grave crime. The media do try to maximize and equalize their audiences thus livening stories which would in the long run overstep the regulation guidelines. It is therefore imperative to give some facts about Gate Keeper’s II: opening the door is concerned.

This is a story about a protest and the Horowitz advertisement. It offers background on Horowitz advertisement and his main idea of running the advertisement in the college newspapers. It offers critically friendly view on the purpose of the advertisement. Horowitz happens to be a neoconservative journalist who attempted to go ahead and publish an advertisement entitled “ten reasons why reparations for slavery are a bad idea for black people and racist too”. Most college newspapers like Columbia and Harvard rejected the advertisement since the editors thought it was racist and offensive.

The newspapers pointed out on the fact that they were not in any position to accept all advertisers who are in a position to buy an advertisement. Few newspapers ran the advertisement and only the University of Chicago ran the advertisement without much hostility (Anthony, 2001). Most people view the rejection of the advertisement as evidence of a politically correct censorship in the American campuses but others have aired concerns on freedom of expression in USA. Some of the ethical theories that Horowitz should have focused on are virtue and moral theories that entails of behaving ethically without attacking any race.

He should have also focused on utilitarianism theory to make sure he writes something that will bring maximum happiness to the majority. In my view, the Horowitz argument and essay was quite offensive to some extent. This is not because it was racist but he doesn’t deny on the fact that slavery did occur or Africans who were enslaved were seriously wronged. He attempts to set an argument purportedly ascertain on which groups did benefit from the slavery and how they did. He contends that Blacks benefited from the slavery.

His arguments are to a certain extent offensive as his contention that the blacks benefited from slavery reduces the slavery wrongs. Also the argument that the blacks would be better in America than they would be in Africa sounds almost like justifying the brutal kidnappings on grounds the victim’s children might end up in countries with high living standard. References Indoor tanning: Smart tan. 2008. Retrieved 23, Aug 2010< http://www. tanningtruth. com/index. php/indoor_tanning/ Porter’s five forces. 2010. Strategic management. Retrieved 23, Aug, 2010 http://www. quickmba. com/strategy/porter. shtml Sebok, Anthony. 2001. The Horowitz slavery AD controversy, and the problem with conceptualizing human rights violations as property based. Retrieved 23, Aug, 2010< http://writ. news. findlaw. com/sebok/20010326. html Straubhaar, Joseph. , LaRose, Robert & Davenport, Lucinda. 2008. Media now: Understanding media, culture and technology. USA: Cengage Learning The Patriot Act : Key controversies. 2010. Retrieved, 23, Aug 2010< http://www. npr. org/news/specials/patriotact/patriotactdeal. html

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