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Reviewer for Science Quiz Bee sample essay

1. A great Greek philosopher, he was the first person to study nature systematically. ARISTOTLE 2. He laid the foundation of modern scientific thought and assembled materials for an organized encyclopedia of all knowledge. ARISTOTLE 3. He was the foremost natural philosopher in ancient times. ARISTOTLE 4. A Benedictine nun, she contributed the medical work “Causea et Curae et Physica”. HILDEGARD OF BENGEN 5. An astronomer who proposed that the sun was the center of the universe. -NICOLAS COPERNICUS

6. He discovered the circulation of the blood which ushered in the new age in the study of medicine and biology. WILLIAM HARVEY 7. He was the first to raise the telescope to the sky to study the universe. GALILEO GALILEI 8. He formulated the 3 laws of planetary motion. JOHANNES KEPLER 9. He proposed the Theory of Evolution. CHARLES DARWIN

10. She discovered radioactivity. MADAME MARIE CURIE 11. He discovered the germ that causes tuberculosis. ROBERT KOCH 12. He became famous for his work on fermentation and decay. –LOUIS PASTEUR 13. He proposed the Theory of Relativity. ALBERT EINSTEIN

14. He won the Nobel Prize for his work on photoelectric effect. ALBERT EINSTEIN 15. She determined the structure of biochemical compounds essential I treating pernicious anemia. -DOROTHY HODGKIN

16. He is considered as the “father of geothermal energy development”. ARTURO ALCARAZ 17. He invented a fertilizer call farmer’s pure organic fertilizer. ABRAHAM Q. TADEJA 18. He invented a solar engine that can generate electricity for home use. JESUS ALVERO 19. A national scientist, is best remembered for his work on medicinal plants. He discovered over 4,000 plant species. EDUARDO A. QUISUMBING 20. It is the scientific way of solving problems. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 21. It is a systematic and logical procedure in solving problems. SCIENTIFIC METHOD

22. It is a challenge or a task which a scientist undertakes for scientific purposes. PROBLEM 23. It is an educated guess about a certain phenomenon. HYPOTHESIS 24. It refers to the general procedure on how to carry out an experiment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN 25. These are the factors that are multiplied or changed. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES 26. These are the factors that change in response to the independent variable. DEPENDENT VARIABLE 27. It is a unit of measure used by Egyptians. CUBIT

28. It is the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. CUBIT 29. It is a modernized version of the metric system. INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS/SI SYSTEM 30. It provides a logical and interconnected framework for all measurements in science, industry, and commerce. INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS/SI SYSTEM 31. It is used to weigh small masses of objects. PLATFORM BALANCE 32. It is equivalent to a foot and consists of 12 inches. RULER 33. It used in measuring length and distance. RULER

34. It used to measure length and distance. It consists of 100 centimeters. METERSTICK 35. Measures time in seconds, minutes, and hours. STOPWATCH 36. It measures volume of liquids. GRADUATED CYLINDER

37. It measures atmospheric temperature. THERMOMETER 38. It measures the force or weight of objects. SPRING BALANCE 39. These are the digits that indicate the certainty of the number of units in a measured quantity. SIGNIFICANT FIGURES 40. It is a shorthand writing of extremely large or small figures. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 41. It is the changing from smaller to bigger unit and vice versa. CONVERSION 42. It is the distance from one point to another. LENGTH

43. It is the basic standard unit in the metric system. METER
44. It is the space occupied by matter. VOLUME
45. It is the amount of matter in an object. MASS
46. It refers to the quantity of matter. MASS
47. It is a quantity of matter which does not change with altitude of a place. MASS 48. It is used to measure the volume of an irregular object.
WATER DISPLACEMENT METHOD 49. It is defined as the mass per unit volume. DENSITY

50. A Greek mathematician who discovered that the earth is round. PYTHAGORAS 51. A Greek mathematician who measured the circumference of the earth as 25,000 miles. ERATHOSTHENES 52. It is an information gathered using the five senses. OBSERVATION 53. It is a conclusion or an interpretation of events based from observed information. INFERENCE 54. It is used as a container and as a heating device. It measures volume of liquids. BEAKER 55. It is used as a heating apparatus, a container and may be used for measuring the volume of liquids. ERLENMEYER FLASK 56. It is used as a heating apparatus. It is also used as a distilling device for collecting gases. FLORENCE FLASK

57. It is used for the preparation of any solution. VOLUMETRIC FLASK 58. It is used as a container for liquid solutions and powderized chemicals. TEST TUBE 59. It is used to hold a test tube while heating. TEST TUBE HOLDER 60. It is used to pick up and hold any hot apparatus. TONGS 61. It is used to distribute evenly the heat of the flame. WIRE GAUZE 62. It is used as a container of liquids and solids being tested. WIDE-MOUTH BOTTLE 63. It is used to hold an apparatus especially when being heated. BURET CLAMP/TEST TUBE CLAMP 64. It is used to support heating apparatuses. TRIPOD

65. It is used for stirring/mixing liquid or solid mixtures. STIRRING ROD 66. It is used for measuring a small amount of liquid. MEDICINE DROPPER 67. It is used for cleaning any glass apparatus. TEST TUBE BRUSH 68. It is used to pick and hold hot objects. FORCEPS

69. It is used to pour liquids from one container to another. FUNNEL 70. It is used for grinding solid substances to powderized form. MORTAR AND PESTLE 71. It is used to allow liquids to evaporate. EVAPORATING DISH 72. It is used for scooping solids or any powderized substance. SPATULA AND SPOON 73. It is used to hold test tubes in place. TEST TUBE RACK 74. It is the main heating device in the laboratory in the absence of a Bunsen burner. LABORATORY BURNER 75. It is used to weigh chemicals and smaller masses of objects. PLATFORM BALANCE 76. It is used as a container for specimens being studied. WATCH GLASS

77. These are used to thicken printing dyes for the textile industry. ALGINATES 78. It is an herbal plant with medicinal value. It can cure stomach ache, diarrhea, and colic. TSAANG-GUBAT 79. It is anything that occupies space and has mass. MATTER 80. This is the attraction between molecules. INTERMOLECULAR ATTRACTION 81. A condition that causes the water molecules at the surface to behave as though they are being stretched. SURFACE TENSION 82. It is the rising action of a liquid inside a very fine tube. CAPILLARITY

83. The attraction between two different kinds of molecule. ADHESION 84. The attraction between the same kinds of molecule. COHESION 85. It consists of one phase with a definite composition. PURE SUBSTANCE 86. Is any material with uniform composition. SUBSTANCE

87. These are made up of atoms of the same identity. ELEMENTS 88. These are pure substances that can be resolved into unidentical atoms. COMPUNDS 89. A physical combination of two more substances. MIXTURE 90. It is a combination of two or more kinds of substance which can be separated by physical means. MIXTURE 91. A mixture that has only one distinct phase. HOMOGENOUS MIXTURE 92. A mixture that has two or more distinct phases. HETEROGENOUS MIXTURE 93. A mixture that is made up of 2 or more substances that are mixed together. HETEROGENOUS MIXTURE 94. It is the standard unit for mass based on the SI system of measurement. KILOGRAM 95. It is the measure of the pull of gravity on an object. WEIGHT 96. The standard unit for measuring weight. NEWTON

97. The ability of a matter to return to their original size and shape after being pushed, pulled or subjected to stress. ELASTICITY 98. The ability of a matter to be extended or flattened and shaped. MALLEABILITY 99. It is the temperature at which a solid begins to liquefy. MELTING POINT 100. It is the temperature at which a liquid starts changing into the gaseous phase. BOILING POINT 101. It describes that matter and energy cannot be created nor destroyed, however, they can be transformed. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS

102. It was formulated to explain the composition and behavior of matter. MOLECULAR THEORY 103. Even smaller particles that make up a molecule. ATOMS 104. Smallest particle of an element. ATOM 105. Smallest particle of a compound. MOLECULE 106. It is characterized by a change in the phase or state of a substance. PHYSICAL CHANGE 107. It is characterized by the formation of new substances with new properties and compositions. CHEMICAL CHANGE 108. These are the materials that undergo a change. REACTANTS

109. These are the materials formed as a result of the chemical change or reaction between the reactants. PRODUCTS 110. It refers to the process in which the amount of living substances in the body increases. GROWTH 111. The process whereby organisms produce new organisms of the same kind. REPRODUCTION 112. It is that ability to respond to external stimuli. IRRITABILITY

113. It means transferring or shifting from one place or position to another. MOVEMENT 114. It allows an organism to change, helping it to cope with unfavorable changes in the environment. ADAPTATION 115. It is the basic structural unit of living things. CELL 116. He invented the microscope. ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK

117. It is an instrument used to magnify or enlarge minute objects. MICROSCOPE 118. An English scientist, the first person to see cells using a very simple microscope. ROBERT HOOKE 119. It is a thin layer that surrounds and holds the parts of the cell together. CELL MEMBRANE 120. It controls the activities of a cell. NUCLEUS

121. It is the jelly-like liquid material of the cell. It contains many cell materials. CYTOPLASM 122. It contains a variety of cell structures. CYTOPLASM 123. These are structures in the cell which generally contain pigments. PLASTIDS 124. These are colorless plastids that are found in sex cells and storage cells of roots and underground stems. LEUCOPLASTS 125. These carry pigments that give color to the plants. CHROMOPLASTS 126. It contains chlorophyll which traps light used in making food. CHLOROPLASTS 127. A green pigment that is essential to photosynthesis. CHLOROPHYLL 128. It provides shape and support to the cell. CELL WALL

129. These are filled with water cell sap which contains food, cell secretions, and wastes. VACUOLES 130. It stores water and dissolved materials. VACUOLES 131. Also known as “suicidal sac”, it contains the enzymes which promote the breakdown or digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. LYSOSOMES

132. It plays an important role in cell division, it is found in the cytoplasm of most animals and in some blue-green algae. CENTROSOME 133. It moves materials within the cells and it maintains its shape. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM 134. It controls the movement of materials in and out of nucleus. NUCLEAR MEMBRANE 135. It releases energy, powerhouse of the cell. MITOCHONDRIA 136. This is where proteins are made. RIBOSOME

137. It carries the code that controls a cell. CHROMOSOMES 138. It stores and releases chemicals. GOLGI BODIES 139. Small organs found in the cytoplasm of both plant and animal cells. ORGANELLES 140. The interaction between a community and its non-living environment. ECOSYSTEM 141. The study of interactions between living things and their environment. ECOLOGY 142. It includes the different species of living organisms in a particular habitat. BIOTIC COMPONENT 143. It refers to the place where organisms live. HABITAT

144. It is composed of non-living things. ABIOTIC COMPONENT 145. Are organisms that cannot make their own food. CONSUMERS 146. Plant eaters. HERBIVORES 147. Eats both plant and animal. OMNIVORE 148. It is a pathway of food and energy through an ecosystem. FOOD CHAIN 149. It is a complex network of feeding relationships made up of many interconnected food chains. FOOD WEB

150. This cycle involves photosynthesis and respiration. CARBON DIOXIDE-OXYGEN CYCLE 151. Microorganisms that acts upon the remaining nitrates in the soil. DENITRIFYING BACTERIA 152. It converts nitrates, nitrites, and ammonia into oxygen. DENITRIFYING BACTERIA 153. A relationship when both organisms are benefited. MUTUALISM 154. A relationship wherein one organism is benefited while the other is not harmed. COMMENSALISM 155. The organism that is actually benefited. COMMENSAL

156. The organism that is neither harmed nor benefited. HOST 157. A relationship wherein one organism is benefited while the other dies. PREEDATION 158. The organism which captures or kills another animal. PREDATOR 159. The organism which gets killed and eaten alive. PREY

160. A relationship where one organism is benefited and the other is harmed. PARASITISM 161. A relationship wherein organisms compete for food in order to survive. COMPETITION 162. Ecological relationship in which participating organisms belong to the same species. INTRASPECIFIC 163. Ecological relationship in which participating organisms belong to different species. INTERSPECIFIC 164. It is the process of manufacturing food in green plants. PHOTOSYNTHESIS

165. A condition in the environment that stops a population from increasing in size. LIMITING FACTOR 166. The destruction of forest. DEFORESTATION 167. It is the adding of harmful substances to the environment that can affect all living organisms. POLLUTION 168. It is caused by particulates from motor vehicles and the burning of fuels in homes and factories. AIR POLLUTION 169. The wise use of natural resources. CONSERVATION

170. It is the wearing away of soil by water, wind, ice, and gravity. EROSION 171. It is the practice of removing unhealthy trees and those with little commercial value. IMPROVEMENT CUTTING 172. It is the practice of removing only mature trees as younger trees are left to grow. SELECTIVE CUTTING 173. It is the practice of renewing a forest by seeding or planting small trees. REFORESTATION

174. It is the total number of organisms of a species in an ecosystem. POPULATION 175. It is a group of population in an ecosystem. COMMUNITY 176. These are the roles played by an organism in a community. ECOLOGICAL NICHES 177. It is a diagram which shows the flow of energy in a food chain. ENERGY PYRAMID 178. These are level of energy consumption. TROPHIC LEVELS

179. It refers to the land part of the earth. LITHOSPHERE 180. These are the basic building blocks of the lithosphere. ROCKS 181. It is the science that deals with the study of formation, composition, and classification of rocks. PETROLOGY 182. The water part of the earth. HYDROSPHERE

183. The continuous depression on the earth’s surface which holds ocean water. OCEAN BASIN 184. Sea of air that completely surrounds the earth. ATMOSPHERE 185. It is generated primarily by the northeast trade winds. NORTH EQUATORIAL CURRENT 186. It is generated by the southeast trade winds and flows from east to west. SOUTH EQUATORIAL CURRENT 187. It flows towards the east between the two equatorial currents. EQUATORIAL COUNTER CURRENT 188. Are movements of water which result from differences in density of adjoining water masses. DENSITY CURRENTS 189. The region drained by a river system. RIVER BASIN

190. The height of the land separating one river from another. DIVIDE 191. It is the layer nearest the earth. TROPOSPHERE 192. It contains the ozone layer. STRATOSPHERE 193. The coldest zone of the atmosphere. MESOSPHERE 194. Temperature in this layer increases quickly because of the absorption of energy from the sun. THERMOSPHERE 195. A layer of electrically-charged particles which are useful for communications. IONOSPHERE 196. It is the layer that extends out to interplanetary space. EXOSPHERE 197. It is the current state of the atmosphere. WEATHER

198. It is an instrument used to measure the force of air or air pressure. BAROMETER 199. A device that keeps the record of air pressure of force of air together with its changes for a longer period of time. BAROGRAPH 200. It is the movement of the air caused by varying density. WIND 201. It is the moisture in the atmosphere. HUMIDITY

202. It forms when a large part of air in the troposphere stops or moves slowly over a uniform land or water surface. AIR MASS 203. A high pressure area produced by the large pile of air over the earth’s surface. ANTICYCLONE 204. It appears as a depression or basin in an air mass. CYCLONE 205. It is the average state of all weather conditions in an area over a long period of time. CLIMATE 206. It has been developed to control and induced precipitation, it is used to disperse fog at airports. CLOUD SEEDING 207. A person who studies the weather. METEOROLOGIST

208. It measures wind speed. ANEMOMETER 209. It is used to measure the amount of rain fall. RAIN GAUGE 210. It is a compilation of weather data from many collecting stations. WEATHER MAP 211. It causes the wind’s direction to change. CORIOLIS EFFECT 212. The study or science of weather. METEOROLOGY

213. The prediction of weather. WEATHER FORECASTING 214. It describes a weather condition with a few clouds and no rain. FINE WEATHER 215. It means that clouds are present which may produce scattered rains but the greater portion of the day will be sunny or without rain. FAIR WEATHER 216. It refers to a condition in which rains occur during a greater portion of the day with light to moderate winds. RAINY WEATHER 217. It refers to a weather condition characterized by rains and strong winds. STORMY WEATHER

218. It is the agency responsible for providing information to the people on what to do before, during and after any natural phenomenon. PAG-ASA 219. He published the “Origin of Continents and Oceans”. ALFRED WEGENER 220. The theory that suggests that continents had once been one large land mass which had separated and moved apart. CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY 221. The great land mass. PANGEA (“ALL THE WORLD” or “ALL NATIONS” 222. The theory that explains not only the movements of continents, but also the changes on the earth’s crust as caused by internal forces. PLATE TECTONIC THEORY 223. According to the theory, the earth’s crust is broken into nine large plates and several smaller ones. PLATE TECTONIC THEORY

224. It is a minor plate between the Eurasian and the Pacific Plates. PHILIPPINE PLATE 225. Two plates are pulling apart, leaving a gap in between. DIVERGENT BOUNDARIES 226. Plates move past one another in opposite directions or in the same direction but at different rates. CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES 227. Two colliding plates cause one to go under the other. CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES 228. The process wherein successive separations and fillings continue to add new oceanic crusts between diverging plates. SEA FLOOR SPREADING 229. The average rate of spreading from a typical mid-ocean ridge. 6 CMS/YR 230. Highest mountain in the Philippines. MOUNT APO.

231. Highest mountain in the world. MOUNT EVEREST 232. The bending of rocks into folds. FOLDING 233. It is the result when the rock layer slides or slips over one another along the break or fracture. FAULTING 234. It is any vibration or shaking of the earth’s crust caused by faults. EARTHQUAKE 235. Earthquakes resulting from the movement of the crust or plate. TECTONIC ORIGIN 236. Earthquakes caused by molten magma as it forces its way up from deep under earth’s crust. VOLCANIC ORIGIN 237. It is an opening on the earth’s crust through which lava is thrown out. VOLCANO

238. These are cone-shaped structures composed of alternating flows of andesite lava and ash, cinders, and fragments. STRATO-VOLCANOES OR COMPOSITE VOLCANOES 239. These are volcanoes formed from basalt. SHIELD VOLCANOES 240. These volcanoes are formed from violent eruptions that expel fragments of lava in cinders. CINDER VOLCANOES 241. These are volcanoes that erupt periodically or had erupted in recent times. ACTIVE VOLCANOES 242. These are volcanoes that show signs of activity but have not erupted for a considerable length of time. DORMANT VOLCANOES 243. These are volcanoes in which all signs of volcanic activities have ceased. EXTINCT VOLCANOES

244. These are formed from cooling and hardening of molten materials which are heavy, usually dark in color, and unlayered. IGNEOUS ROCKS 245. These are formed from sediments, shells, or remains of plants and animal fossils, that were buried and later hardened into rocks. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS 246. These are formed from pre-existing igneous and sedimentary rocks as a result of temperature and pressure changes. METAMORPHIC ROCKS 247. The process where rocks change from one form to another as they are affected by natural processes, such as weathering, erosion, great heat, and pressure. ROCK CYCLE

248. The process of breaking down of rocks into fragments brought about by physical or chemical change. WEATHERING 249. The process by which rock fragments and soil are carried along by such agents as wind, water, and gravity. EROSION 250. The process of transferring soil from one place to another. EROSION 251. The process by which eroded rock fragments and soil are deposited in different places. DEPOSITION 252. The process by which deposited soil and rock fragments at the bottom of the sea become cemented and harden into rocks. COMPACTING

253. The process where compacted or cemented rock is subjected to great heat and pressure, changing the constitution of the rock. METAMORPHISM 254. It is naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid with definite chemical composition. MINERAL 255. It refers to the way light is reflected from a mineral’s surface. LUSTER 256. It is a mineral’s resistance to being scratched. HARDNESS 257. A German mineralogist who worked out a scale of hardness used for mineral identification. FRIEDROCH MOHS 258. It is the hardest mineral. DIAMOND

259. It is the softest mineral. TALC 260. It is the color of a mineral in powderized form. STREAK

261. The way mineral breaks along smooth, flat planes. CLEAVAGE 262. It refers to the ratio of the mineral’s mass to the mass of an equal volume of water. SPECIFIC GRAVITY 263. It is the process of excavating and extracting ore or minerals in rocks. MINING 264. It is an organic matter from decayed plant and animal materials. HUMUS 265. It is a vertical section of all horizons that make up a soil. SOIL PROFILE 266. It consists of less fragmented rock materials, being less exposed to agents of weathering. BEDROCK 267. It refers to coarseness or fineness of the soil particles resulting from the weathering of rocks. SOIL TEXTURE 268. It has the smoothest and finest soil texture. SILT

269. It is the soil that is best for farming. LOAM 270. It is the uprising of water from the greater depths as the surface water is driven offshore. UPWELLING 271. A layer that absorbs or filters harmful rays from the sun. OZONE LAYER 272. It is a mountain-building process. VOLCANISM

273. The shape of the earth. OBLATE SPHEROID 274. The spinning or turning of the earth on its axis. ROTATION 275. It is the movement of the earth on its axis that gives rise to the occurrence of day and night. ROTATION 276. The movement of the earth around the sun. REVOLUTION

277. The imaginary line which separates the zones of day and night. TWILIGHT CIRCLE 278. The earth’s axis is tilted at 23 ½ degrees
279. The earth completes its revolution once in every 365 and ¼ days. 280. Our planet’s only natural satellite. MOON
281. The rise and fall in sea level. TIDE
282. It occurs when the moon, the earth, and the sun are in line with one another. ECLIPSE 283. When the sun, moon, and earth fall in one straight line, the sun cannot be sun from a spot on earth because the moon covers it. SOLAR ECLIPSE 284. When the sun, earth, and the moon are aligned, the moon cannot be seen from earth because the earth covers it. LUNAR ECLIPSE 285. The dark inner part of the eclipse. UMBRA

286. The lighter outer part of the eclipse. PENUMBRA 287. It is the term used when the sun’s disk is completely covered by the moon. TOTAL ECLIPSE 288. It is the term used where only a part of the sun’s disk is covered. PARTIAL ECLIPSE 289. It is defines as the mean distance of the earth from the sun equivalent to 150,000,000km. ASTRONOMICAL UNIT (AU) 290. It considered as the most massive or the biggest planet. JUPITER 291. It is the densest among the planets. EARTH

292. It is the farthest planet and has the longest period of revolution. PLUTO 293. Are celestial objects made of ice and dust that revolve around the sun. COMETS 294. Are small, stony matters located in the space which passes through the earth in orbiting the sun. METEORS also known as “SHOOTING STARS” 295. Meteors that do not burn completely and fall on earth. METEORITES 296. Are meteor chunks that fall on earth.METEORITES

297. Are gigantic balls of flaming gases. STARS
298. It is the measure of the brightness of a star. MAGNITUDE 299. It refers to the apparent brightness of a star. MAGNITUDE 300. It is the nearest star to the earth. SUN

301. It is a medium-sized, middle-aged star of average brightness. SUN 302. An instrument used to learn about the composition of stats. SPECTROSCOPE 303. The process used to determine the size of the stars. INTERFEROMETRY 304. A technique that obtains an image in the surface of a big star. SPECKLE PHOTOGRAPHY 305. It is used to compute the diameter of the star. STEFAN-BOLTZMAN LAW

306. These are loose groups of stars that move through space as a unit. STAR CLUSTERS 307. These are group of stars that form a definite pattern. CONSTELLATIONS 308. It is the area where the star groups that are always visible are located. NORTH STAR OR POLARIS 309. These are huge systems of billions of stars and other celestial bodies. GALAXIES 310. It is the galaxy to which our sun belongs. MILKY WAY

311. It is a spiraling or rotating group of some 100 billion stars and clouds of dust and gases. MILKY WAY 312. It is composed of millions of galaxies. UNIVERSE 313. The planet that has the highest temperature because of its thick clouds of carbon dioxide. VENUS 314. It is anything that changes the motion and direction of moving objects or that causes an object at rest to start moving. FORCE 315. It is a push or a pull. FORCE

316. The force that attracts all objects on earth. GRAVITATIONAL FORCE 317. The force of attraction or repulsion between charged bodies. ELECTRICAL FORCE 318. The force that attracts any metal to the magnet. MAGNETIC FORCE 319. A very strong force that holds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom. NUCLEAR FORCE 320. It resists or opposes the movement of two surfaces in contact with one another. FRICTION 321. A force that is present on two surfaces in contact with each other. CONTACT FORCE 322. It arises when two bodies collide as a result of squeezing, stretching, or bending. CONTACT FORCE

323. A force that acts on bodies over great distance. NON-CONTACT FORCE 324. It is done when the force applied to an object actually moves the object. WORK 325. It is always a product of a force applied and the distance along which the force acted. WORK 326. These are devices which transform force or energy into useful work. MACHINES 327. It is a rigid bar which is pivoted around a point called fulcrum. LEVER 328. It is made up of a grooved wheel over which a rope passes. PULLEY 329. It consists of a wheel attached to an axle. WHEEL AND AXLE 330. It is a spiral, inclined plane. SCREW

331. It is a flat surface with one end higher than the other. INCLINED PLANE 332. It is a double inclined plane with either one or two sloping sides. WEDGE 333. It is a unit used to express work. JOULE (J) or NEUTRON METER (Nm) 334. It is the distance and direction through which an object moves. DISPLACEMENT 335. He discovered work. JAMES PRESCOTT JOULE

336. It is defined as the capacity to do work. ENERGY 337. It is the ability to do work or the capacity to move matter from one place to another. ENERGY 338. The energy of position or condition. POTENTIAL ENERGY 339. The energy of motion. KINETIC ENERGY 340. According to this law, energy can change from one form or another, but it can never be created nor destroyed. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY 341. It is the total energy coming from the attractive and repulsive forces of all the molecules in a body. THERMAL ENERGY 342. It is the energy transferred from an object with a high temperature to one with a lower temperature. HEAT ENERGY

343. It is the energy stored in matter due to forces of attraction and the arrangement of subatomic particles in atoms and of atoms in the molecules of substance. CHEMICAL ENERGY 344. It is the energy of electrons flowing through conductors. ELECTRICAL ENERGY OR ELECTRICITY 345. It is defined as the changing of one form of energy into another form. ENERGY TRANSFORMATION 346. It involves the transfer of heat energy from one material or system to another. HEAT TRANSFER 347. It is the transfer of heat from one matter to another. It occurs when two objects at different temperatures are in direct contact. CONDUCTION 348. Energy transfer through solid particles. CONDUCTION

349. Materials that conduct heat easily. CONDUCTORS 350. Materials in which heat energy cannot pass through. INSULATORS 351. It is the transfer of heat in a gas or liquid. CONVECTION 352. It is the transfer of energy that does not require matter. RADIATION 353. Energy transfer through an empty space in the form of waves. RADIATION 354. These were formed during the decay of organisms that lived millions years ago. FOSSIL FUELS 355. It forms as a result of the decay of plants in the absence of oxygen. COAL 356. The brownish substance in the decaying materials of plants. PEAT

357. The second stage of coal formation. It is a brown coal composed of compressed woody matter that has lost all its moisture. LIGNITE 358. The third stage of coal formation. It is a dense, dark, brittle material that has lost all its moisture and impurities. BITUMINOUS COAL 359. It is the final stage of coal formation. It has the least impurities because it is mostly carbon. ANTHRACITE COAL 360. It is an important hydrocarbon found in nature within pores and fractures of rocks. PETROLEUM OR CRUDE OIL 361. It is the easiest fossil fuel to transport and the cleanest when burned. NATURAL GAS 362. It refers to the production of electricity by means of generators driven by water turbines as an energy source. HYDROELECTRIC POWER

363. It comes from the internal heat of the earth. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 364. It is produced by fission or the splitting of the atom’s nucleus. NUCLEAR ENERGY 365. It is the abnormal increase in the temperature of bodies of water. THERMAL POLLUTION 366. A waste product which destroys cells, changes genetic materials, and even kills the plant and animal population living near the power plant. RADIATION 367. It is the harnessing of wind for energy needs. WIND POWER 368. It is the radiant energy from the sun. SOLAR ENERGY

369. A device which collects energy from the sun and transforms it directly into electricity. SOLAR CELL OR PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL 370. It is a possible generator of electricity with the two-way flow of water through narrow passages. TIDAL POWER 371. These are burnable fuels which are made from organic matter. BIOMASS FUELS 372. This is a combination of alcohol and gasoline. GASOHOL OR ALCOGAS 373. It is the wise and careful use of energy resources. ENERGY CONSERVATION

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