Science and Society: Lecture Notes sample essay
November 14, 2011 “We can do no great things; only small things with great love.” The Practice of Science Science: ^ knowledge ^ systematic and orderly ^ classic – systematized and orderly body of knowledge – the GREEKS * Greeks – considered classical because they set the standards in Western civilization based on order and system ^ tragedy or comedy – only two plots – we’ve been trained to understand science in a neat and perfect way – normality- everything that fits into the system, anything else is abnormal – things will work only/given this and this. – rigid- it seems that there’s only one correct answer – if you’re just beginning to thing and you’re tied up to this, you won’t like it. This definition is restrictive.
November 16, 2011 (photo-inset) what does this mean? Solids- molecules are more fixed, 0 degrees Kelvin – relative Projectile motion – parabolic curve that is defined by an equation – represents consistency FORMULA ONLY HAPPENED BECAUSE IF THE DEFINED ORDER affected by gravity – trajectory case Normal Science – natural science that is observed more regularly (commonly observed phenomenon) thus science is empirical (something that you can measure) – observed and verified – COLLECTION: consistent; coherent (no other observation that will contradict the fact); constructive (every finding is based on something that can lead to something else)
* Anomalies – Hierarchy – in terms of scientific statements * simple observations – descriptions of the world * specific relationships – theories – statements of relationships only! Volume & temp = direct relationship * fundamental principles – referring to the natural laws (laws that explain or define natural phenomenon – principle of conservation) Paradigm – a model – model : theme, structures, proceedings Science – rational INQUIRY into nature * rational – logical/perspective – an agreed upon process that is acceptable at least to a culture * nature – physical world
Object of inquiry(nature)(measurable characteristics or knowable) Inquirer (the need to be rational-capacity to know/inquire) being rational “Independence” – go both ways; the object of inquiry distinguishes itself because it is OBJECTIVE. But whatever we do, we are part of the physical world, we are made of the same thing, so there is no such thing as unbiased. Methodology Scientific Method – used to know that the bias is controlled and minimized – this is where the rigidity comes in November 18, 2011 “Wag ka sumigaw puta” – Louie Science is the search for the objective truth. *Is social science research less objective? – the degree of detachment, differs. Social science has a more difficult time to detach from the object of inquiry. In terms of the measurements of the characteristics, social science doesn’t know how to measure them yet.
Not yet perfected. Natural sciences, weight volume or height are all measured perfectly. * it is how accurately we measure Science is a rational inquiry to nature. Scientific Methods Structured: systematic and orderly Unstructured: creative and intuitive * (Photo of a snake biting its tail and benzene ring) – the guy who came up with this dreamt it. – proves creativity * Creativity and intuitive comes in if you are observant enough. But it also requires the mind to have an output, do a theory and then a structured component that leads to validation and verifying.
This in turn, reaches objectivity. “We are but a product of chance.” Measurements of characteristics * parameters – length, width, height, mass, volume, light (expressed in wavelengths or frequency) * precision vs. accuracy * bias/error – intel-observer bias: conformity, intra-personal bias: not sure of yourself ^ the scientific method minimizes the bias by many many many repetitions. Things requires thousands of trials. (photo of a satellite, stopwatch, microscope, thermometer, etc.) technologies like this can also have factory error. Even a little. Degree of error differs. * Confounding error Reality / Test. Present. Absent. This is a chart.
Indentified: + | “+” Not identified: “-” | * some tests are not accurate, false positive (founding something that is not there) problem of test not being specific, not being able to distinguish the positive and negative accurately. * false negative – problem of sensitivity November 23, 2011 First set! January!!!! 3 to 5 pages, font 12 double spaced. Cite sources. Instrument error, observer error (intra and inter) * problems of precision and accuracy * pregnancy test are sensitive but not specific (H mole – can be detected in pregnancy test) “always try to be good, but if you can’t be good. BE SAFE” “STAY ON TOP” (Hi Mina – Mikee) —————–False positive – not specific False negative – not sensitive —————–â€¢
Experiment – a well designed experiment * standardize the variables * verification – repetition (consistent-doing it the same way) â€¢ Repeatability – standardization of process * controlled conditions â€¢ Objective Truth (Objectivity – standardized and verifiable) â€¢ Predictive Power – possibility/probability (observation of related patterns) to make both deductive and inductive reasoning (trajectory – parabolic path using math) – only good as the current variables are accurately measure of present variables – no time / accuracy to predict it – difficulty to measure / unmeasurable Stephen hawking – artificial voice box – he can make predictions but not explain the universe November 25, 2011 Values: â€¢Honesty – report what you see and observe – the fundamental movement of science is to tell the truth, and to tell the truth is about reporting what is there and what is observable. The methodology of science is to speak only of the truth. – methods – work ethics – just write what you see
– ownership – intellectual property rights (IPR) getting credit for your work (1970’s) (social injustice) 1300 ~ Dark Ages – Europe has just been invaded by the easterners – down of knowledge but not completely in the context of the world – because education and arts were flourishing because of the monasteries, but the wars ruined it – inventions in warfare and military technology – the printing press – have the ability to claim the books (photo – Alexander graham bell) (Elisha grey) â€¢ Humility – monopoly of truth – community (what has been done and said, begin with help of the people who went before you – Isaac newton’s acceptance speech when he won the Nobel prize “if I’m able to see fathers than most men is because I stood in the shoulder of giants”) – for people to come together to work their way to the truth without misleading others (Galileo facing the roman inquisition by Christiano Banti (1857) – science is building up processes and information Methodology helps the inherent fact that science is humble.
The truth is the product of many works. Anomalies – inconsistencies or misconceptions that create intellectual tensions â€¢ Inconsistencies – internal – contextual â€¢ Paradigm shifts – scientific revolution (geocentric to heliocentric) ‘Anomalies need to be subjected to a rigorous subjective process by the scientific community.’ – no means to verify or refute a statement – when the finding is inconsequential (it doesn’t change anything) “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler” – Albert Einstein being simple (to be able to grasp the fundamental) and being simplistic (to miss the point). December 2, 2011 – science is a mixture of creativity and intuition – serendipity – when opportunity meets readiness – ideas came at the right place at the right time Eureka – there is some preparation to attain this – study, research, and read Understanding Science / Technology and Society Science and technology – the human application of knowledge to the making tools and use of natural resources.
– Ricardo Abad, PhD * human application – non-material culture * tools – material culture Non-material – values, attitudes, ideology, norms, beliefs Material – high-tech, low-tech Science and technology interacts with Society – politics, Economics, ideologies, values Sociology of S&T Institutional approach – normative : order and system — communalism (sharing informations but with IPR), universalism (truth is universal- no one can refute something that is verified and standardized), disinterested ness (objectivity of science- what we see, what we measure), organized skepticism (everything is verified) Constructivist approach – local practice : time and space — other scientist (politics – if the head of your country is a physicist,it will excel in that), funding agency, suppliers, investors, clients, government (policies – powerful thing that dictates science in a subjective fashion) Kuhn : paradigm shift — restrictions (physical world – limits itself to what it can measure or verify), temporary stability, revolutions (when we encounter anomalies)
Technological development – product of both demand-pull (driven by needs and wants) and technology-push (science in nature has the thing to expand) — development of nuclear atomic Social Change: Perspectives â€¢ Consensus / functionalist What role does technology play to build harmony? – Systematic, interrelated * equilibrium based (solving the problems of a global industrialized society) – Solution to the problems of the industrialized world – if not (disequilibrium) * manifest function – intended use, obvious or direct effect * latent – indirect / unintended consequence E.g: Telephone : communication & then medium for industries Fossil fuels – function then pollution and global warming ** dysfunction – sometimes the latent – negative effect – fan create miscommunication and confusion â€¢ Conflict
Who benefits the most from technology? – interest groups (groups trying to access and maximize interest) – type casting – who gets access to or who benefits – harmony temporarily controlled by the dominant group Who benefits the most? Whose interest is protected? â€¢ Symbolic Interactionist how does technology affect (1) the way we see ourselves and (2) the way they relate to each other? – Interactions represented in symbols and language – (Identify formation) – Provide meaning to and gain understanding of the response to these interactions What is the emerging reality? How does technology affect social relations? (LONG TEST 1) Plenary – technology and lifestyle Technology – the sum total of knowledge, skills and products in all areas of human endeavor Lifestyle – way a person lives…
Convergence if information and communication technology – huge progress The World is Flat – Thomas L. Friedman Predictions for 2020 – 70% of labor productivity – net access anytime, anywhere – manufactured products will be available online – all commerce, industry, banks and consumers would be linked “The medium is the message” – Marshall McLuhan Google produces information from the dawn of civilization to 2003 in 2 days Multitasking – increased caffeine consumption ICT to improve social inequity? South Korea – quality of broadband – challenge is filtering information “We shape our tools thereafter our tools shape us” – McLuhan Internet Addiction Disorder Surveys: Most important technology – mobile, laptop, telephone
December 12,2011 Innovation & Technology vs. Social Changers Chindogu – chin “tool” and dagu “weird/unusual” Infrastructure – difference in Japan and Philippines Simpler solution Non- material (values,attitudes,beliefs,ideology) – human application of knowledge to making of tools and the use of natural resources – material (high tech, low tech) Technology – apparatus, activities, organizational networks – the science of application of knowledge to practical purposes – applied science – the application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in a particular field – the technical method of achieving a practical purpose – the totality of means employed by people to provide itself with the objects of material culture Fire – when people starts to think how to start fire without lightning is technology, sharing of info – social changer
To get knowledge 1) think 2) steal Mother of all innovation – Need To extend our capabilities and minimize our limitations technological race / competition – walking on the moon Technology as a driving force if social change Technology is great but it does things the way that we think they shouldn’t Science concerns itself with knowing why Vs. Technology Technology is not just shaped by knowledge but by social interests… Ages in human history and the tools and technology of their time, technology shapes society – the plow Waves of technology Comparison of 3 waves Energy – physical strength
Distribution of goods / travel Family structure Education and information Power structures (government) – alpha male First wave: “Agriculture” revolution ** studies have shown that the decision of staying on the area led or pushed the development of agriculture ** why did they decide to settle down when they were doing fine as nomads? – by being nomadic, you don’t have a sure food source – (becomes cumbersome) – They have to carry more/heavy babies and families and so as not to expose the weak ones – so they started growing stuffs instead Tool: Plow (particularly) Accomplishments: tobacco is the most researched plant Seed size, fiber length Horse, goats, sheep, pig, cow – big 5 – herds Elite ——-> peasants, slaves and workers (landless, educated, unhealthy) – feudalism
Energy – strength and fire, technology – Man power and still fire Distribution of goods and travel – domestication of animals, there but starting Family structure – larger, no family planning, the faster they can finish the work, the faster they can hangout. Mortality rate is high Education and information – elites are educated, word of mouth Power structure – elites who have the most land Second wave : Industrial revolution ** revolutionizing the agriculture Tool: steam engine (and conveyor belts = machines) and fossil fuels ** faster and massively ** assembly line – specialization (concentration of the tree, lost the view of the forest)
Accomplishments : Rails are needed – steel, manpower Middle class – revolution Beginning of globalization, system of money, queens Factory was everywhere – one person doesn’t have to do everything, in terms of efficiency this is good, good that they want to apply to to all aspects Kids – small hands for intricate details, kids make more money. Education was a push back, no innovation because that’s the only thing they know. Mass production, consumption, education, communication, destruction Resource extraction and exploitation
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