Scientific Management Essay
Scientific management method is principle of management that applies scientific methods and principles in the management of workers and tasks. (Head, 2005) As defined by Head scientific management is the use of scientific methods among the workers to greatly increase the firm’s productivity. The scientific methods of management called for optimizing the way tasks were formed and ensured that the tasked would be performed better than how they were.
It called for the training of workers so as to simplify the routine tasks and to aid in the improved production by performing their specialized sequence in motion in ones best way of doing it (Braverman, 1974) Before the introduction of the scientific management systems, all the tasks however complicated or simple were performed by some skilled craftsmen. These employees had taken a lot of time learning their jobs through apprenticeship; therefore they had to do as they saw it done by their trainers.
In the process of doing the job, the craftsmen made their own decision about how their jobs were to be handled and completed. This made it to them so autonomous and therefore it was taken away by the scientific methods who simplified some jobs which made them to be done by even unskilled craftsmen (Hung, 1915). After Taylor had observed all the time wasted by the Craftsmen he observed improving the Job efficiencies. He gained the experience while working in a steel factory. While Taylor was in this steel factory he observed that most workers were producing very much below their normal production level.
This he observed and researched on the reasons, which he found that; there is a common believe among workers that if they work and produce to their capacity many of them would be sent home, another reason was that in the company there was no incentive wages that would motivate the workers- the workers were being paid on an horizontal line regardless of their efforts in the production. This made workers to feel very much relaxed. (Braverman, 1974) During the research Taylor also concluded that the employees also use to convince their bosses that the pace they were moving with the job was the best pace.
Another reason which also made this to happen was the fear that if the workers work at a faster pace then that would set for them the standards to be used to evaluate them- this would be a threat a looming danger to their working conditions and lastly the he observed that workers feared that management would decide to decrease their pay if the payment was done per unit of production. ( Braverman, 1994) The mother and controller of these problems was that all the workers depended on the rule of the thumb in performing their works.
This he was set to change by countering soldering effect and increasing efficiency. (Dawson, 2005) To achieve this mission Taylor did a time study to determine on what grounds to apply the scientific method. During the time study he was interested in the proving of a principle which he said that even the most basic mindless task could be planned in a way that would increase productivity and that the scientific management of the task would be more appealing to the workers, that with the method alone the workers are already motivated. Head,2005)
To prove these entire he carried four experiments namely, pig iron, The Science of Shoveling and brick lying experiments. These he did in the calculating efficiency when some routine works are eliminated in the process. All was a success and then developed the principles that would be used in adapting the scientific management methods. The principles to be adopted were that each company who wanted to new management method had to replace rule of thumb work method with methods based on scientific study.
The institution adopting this system had to scientifically select, train and develop workers rather that passively leaving them to train themselves. That company also had to divide work nearly equally between the management and the workers and lastly the management had to corporate with workers to ensure that the scientifically select methods are being followed. (Hunges, 2004)
With these principles in mind many companies adopted the scientific management and recorded improved productivity however the method was faced by some challenges as; the use of stop watches was a protested issue and led to strike in one company and it also method increased the monotony of work. (Dawson ,2005) Although the method was being protested by many workers it has been adopted by many companies today since it changed the way work was being done(dowson,2005).
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