Socialization Definition sample essay
Socialization: Lifelong (process) social experience by which people develop their human potential & learn culture Personality: A persons fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking and feeling
The social Sciences: The role of Nurture
* Psychologist John B Watson developed a theory called behaviorism, which holds that behaviour is not instinctive but learned. (Nature not nurture) * Nurture is our nature
Studies of non human primates
* Psychologist Harry and Margaret placed rhesus monkeys (surprisingly there behaviour is same as humans) in various conditions of social isolation – * They found that complete isolation for 6 months seriously disturbs the monkey’s development * Infant monkeys in cages with an artificial mother made of wire with wooden head – they survived by could not interact with others when placed in a group. * Harlow’s concluded it is important that adults cradle infants affectionately. * Infants monkey could recover from about three months of isolation – 3 months+ cause serious damage Studies of isolated children * Anna died at the age of 10 with a blood disorder. * Isabelle spoke around 2000 words. At the age of 14 she was in grade 6. * Genie abused by her parents. She was tied to a potty chair at the age of 2. She lives with adults.
Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality
Lived in Vienna at times when most Europeans considered human behaviour to be biologically fixed. Trained as a physician, Freud gradually turned to the study of personally and mental disorders. Basic Human Needs
* Biology plays a major role in human development
* Humans have two basic needs that are present at birth:
* 1st sexual and emotional bonding (which is called life instinct) * 2nd death instinct or thanatos (Greek: death)
* These opposing forces, operating at an unconscious level create deep inner tensions
Freud’s Model of Personality
* Freud combined basic needs & the influence of society into a model of personality with 3 parts: * id (Latin word for It) – represents the human beings basic drive, which are unconscious & demand immediate satisfaction. id is present at birth (newborn demand attention, touching and food). Society oppose the self centered id which is why the first words a child learns is no. * Ego (Latin word for I) – A persons conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure – seeking drives with the demands of society. This develops are we become aware of ourselves and at the same time realize that we cannot have everything we want. * Superego (Latin meaning above or beyond ego) – Is the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual. Tells us why we cannot have everything we want. This begins to form as a child becomes aware of parental demands and matures when a child understands everyone’s behaviour should take account cultural norms. BALANCE
Freud’s Model of Personality
id: The human beings basic drives| Ego: a person’s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure – seeking drives with demands of society| Superego: the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual |
* If conflicts are not solved during childhood, they may surface as personality disorders later on * Culture in the form of superego, contains selfish demands – look beyond their own desires * Sublimation – redirects selfish drives into socially acceptable behaviour: Marriage = Sex / Sports = anger
What are the three elements in Freud’s Model of personality? Explain how each one operates.
Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Swiss psychologist studied human cognition – how people think and understand. (4 stages) * The sensorimotor stage: the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only though their senses. About 2 years – infant only knows the world through 5 senses. * The pre operational stage (enter at age 2): The level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols. In this stage, children begin to think about the world mentally and use imagination. (Toy as their fav but cannot explain what kinds of toys they like). They cannot judge size, weight, or volume. ( water cup example, age 5)
* The concrete operational stage: the level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings. Around age 7-11 children focus on things and why they happen and also attach one more symbol to it. ( My birthday and Monday) * The formal operational stage: the level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically. Around age 12 young people begin to reason in depth. (Teacher and a job that helps others)
Sensorimotor stage: the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through (5) senses | Pre operational stage: The level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols | Concrete operational stage: the level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings | Formal operational stage:The level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically|
What are Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development? What does his theory teach us about socialization?
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development (moral reasoning) * Pre conventional – how people judge situations as right or wrong (child grabs something shiny on the table – CP) – individual needs * Conventional Level – 2nd stage – appears by teen years. People tend to lose their selfishness. (stealing to help and stealing a ipad are different) * Post conventional level – 3rd stage – people move beyond their society norms to consider abstract ethical principles. They think of freedom or justice. (Rosa Parks and racial injustice)
What are Kohlberg’s three stages of moral development? What does his theory teach us about socialization?
Carol Gilligan’s Theory of Gender and Moral Development
* Compared the moral development of girls and boys = 2 genders use different standards of rightness * Boys: Justice perspective – formal rules to define right and wrong (stealing is wrong) Girls: care & responsibility perspective – judging situation with a personal relationship (stealing to feed) * Rule based male reasoning as superior to the Pearson based female approach * Young girls start eager and confident but there self esteem slips away as they pass through adolescence * Why? because of socialization of girls
According to Gilligan, how do boys and girls differ in their approach to understating right and wrong?
Self: the part of an individual’s personality composed of self awareness and self image
George Herbert Mead’s Theory of the Social Self
* Developed a theory of social behaviourism to explain how social experience develops an individual’s personality * Meads central concept: The self. * First: the self is not their at birth: it develops. Mead rejected the idea that personality is guided by biological drives (Freud said it is). * Second: self develops only with social experience, as people interact with others. Without interaction, the body grows but no self emerges. * Third: social: experience is the exchange of symbols. (we attach meaning with wave of hand, smile) * Fourth: seeking meaning leads us to imagine the intentions of others. * Fifth: understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the others point of view. (how someone will catch a ball we throw) – taking the role of the other)
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