Sugar Respiration in Yeast sample essay
Sugars are vital to all living organisms. The eukaryotic fungi, yeast, have the ability to use some, but not all sugars as a food source by metabolizing sugar in two ways, aerobically, with the aid of oxygen, or anaerobically, without oxygen. The decomposition reaction that takes place when yeast breaks down the hydrocarbon molecules is called cell respiration. As the aerobic respiration breaks down glucose to form viable ATP, oxygen gas is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced.
This lab focuses on studying the rate of cellular respiration of saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker’s yeast, in an aerobic environment with glucose, sucrose, lactose, artificial sweetener, and water as a negative control. A CO2 Gas Sensor Probe is used to measure the amount carbon dioxide produced as the cellular respiration occurs which is proportional to how much of the molecule is decomposed. For this experiment water is used as a treatment control to provide a baseline for all the other treatments.
To ensure the validity of the experiment, the amount of time the yeast was exposed to the sugars, the designated pipets for each sugar, the amount of sugar tested, and the temperature of the yeast culture were monitored to be the same throughout the experiment. It was hypothesized that during the cellular respiration glucose, sucrose, splenda, and lactose would all produce carbon dioxide but in various amounts.
Since the Splenda used is an artificial sweetener, it was also hypothesized that it would produce the least amount of carbon dioxide of the sugar samples but since water is used also as a control, it should have the lowest to zero reading of all the samples since it contains no sugar. Due to the different molecular formula of glucose, sucrose, and lactose it was also hypothesized that the cellular respiration between the yeast and glucose would create the most amount of carbon dioxide being that it is a monosaccharide that it should require less effort to decompose.
The results from the experiment support the hypothesis that all six sugar samples would produce carbon dioxide as a result of cellular respiration. The carbon dioxide produced can be correlated with the energy being produced during the cellular respiration because it is a by-product of the decomposition reaction. The experiment proved my second theory wrong that splenda would produce the least amount of carbon dioxide of the sugars. According the the graph in Figure 02, the lowest producing sugar was in fact, lactose.
Glucose was the highest carbon dioxide producing sugar. Sucrose was the second highest producing sugar and Splenda the third highest. The experiment supported my last theory that of all the sugars, glucose would produce the most carbon dioxide being that its rate of energy production was about 18 times that of lactose. This is because glucose is a simple sugar that is directly used in the glycolysis cycle which leads to the following energy producing steps.
The other sugars, sucrose, lactose, and splenda are disaccharides that require an enzyme and energy to break it down into glucose and fructose molecules in order for it to be used in the glycolysis cycle. Concentration played a role in the rate of respiration by showing how the amount of carbon dioxide produced begins to taper off as the concentration increased. This is because at 5% glucose concentration, the yeast met its maximum potential to break down the simple sugar.
Compared to the class average, the only discrepancy was that the amount of carbon dioxide produced with the control was higher than with the lactose mixture. This could be because of the temperature change in water where if the water was too cold then it could have slowed down the metabolizing process of the yeast. Yeast live in many different environments. From this experiment, it is clear to see that they grow in areas rich in carbohydrates. For example, wet grains, potato fields, fruits, and juices.
The sugars contained in fruits act as a possible food source for these yeasts. If this experiment were to be repeated, extra care would be put into monitoring the temperature of the water and the amount of yeast culture used in each sample. This experiment could be furthered if other types of yeasts were used and at different temperatures to see how it affects the metabolism rate of yeast. This could determine which types of environments is best suited to produce yeast and the efficiency rate of cell respiration of yeast.
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