Terms Ap Us History sample essay
Sea Dogs-roving English ships that plundered Spanish treasure ships (1560s) St. Augustine–fort Spain created in Florida 1565 to protect the route of its treasure fleet against English ships, French settlers, hostile Indians (1st permanent Euro. settlement in US) Comprehensive Orders for New Discoveries-new policy Spanish leaders introduced after military setbacks to pacify Indians by Christianizing missionaries not conquistadores (1573) Ecomenderos-privelaged spanish landowners in NM, who were allowed by the Franciscans to utilize the goods and forced labor of Indians and their land Popé-an Indian shaman, who killed and drove away Spaniards (destroying Spanish churches etc) with his followers in 1680 Samuel de Champlain-founder of the fur-trading post Quebec (1608), first permanent French colony). Colony did badly until 1662 when it was turned to royal colony Robert de La Salle-fur trader who in 1681 traveled down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico to found Louisiana (and ultimately New Orleans).
Traveled so far from Great Lakes/New France region to get rive by taking advantage of of remote Indians who did not know value of their furs Henry Hudson-An English mariner sent by Dutch merchants in 1609 to find a navigable route to East Indies/riches. Explored rivers of the NE (esp. Hudson River) and found plentiful furs Fort Orange-Dutch merchants founded this fur-trading post (now Albany) in 1614 after following H. Hudson’s exploration to trade for furs with the Iroquois West India Company-chartered by Dutch government in 1621 and set up New Netherland colony and New Amsterdam (Manhattan) as capital, brining in farmers/artisans to make sustainable. Later acted independently, ignoring New Netherland to profit in other colonies Governor Peter Stuyvesant-governor of New Amsterdam who ruled in authoritarian way by alienating colony’s diverse residents and ignoring representation demands.
Anglo-Dutch War-series of wars fought between the Dutch and the English in the 1600s and 1700s over control of the seas and trade routes. Early wars confirmed the Dutch Republic’s position as the leading maritime country and its domination of world trade until the early 1700s. Virginia Company-London company of investors granted all land by King James I of England from NC to NY (1606). Directors named land Virginia and in 1607 group of male traders (no farming experience) settled area of Jamestown with intention of obtaining gold (there was no gold). More than half of first settlers died from voyage, disease, famine. Later encouraged migration by granting free settlers land. Powhatan-chief of local tribes who treated the English traders as potential (trade) allies, and essentially saved them from total famine when he gave them corn (in exchange got metal tools/guns). Saved life of Captain John Smith from his brother Opechancanough. John Rolfe-an English colonist that married Powhatan’s daughter Pocahontas under his arrangement (diplomatic effort by Powhatan).
Rolfe imported tobacco seed from West Indies, producing a profitable and in-demand crop in Europe––spurred migration of thousands of English settlers establishing plantations, and consequently invading Indian land. House of Burgesses-system of representative government in VA issued as a charter from the Virginia Company (1619). Could make laws and levy taxes, but governor/company council in England could veto its acts. Opechancanough-Powhatan’s brother and successor who attacked the early English invaders (captured Capt. John Smith). Stayed distant from English and refused all treaties while Powhatan chief. Became chief 1621, wanted to wipe out all of Englishmen (land-hungry and conversion minded). Started Indian War of 1622 when killed 1/3 of white English in surprise attack, who then brutally punished Indians and declared perpetual war that lasted 10 years.
Privy Council-a committee of political advisers to King James I, who made it a requirement that all legislation passed by the new VA governor and his advisory council of the House of Burgesses (formed in 1624 when King James I revoked VA Company’s charter and made VA a royal colony b/c of Indian uprising) had to be ratified by them. Toleration Act of 1649-Lord Baltimore persuaded the assembly (of MD) to pass this act––which protected his fellow Catholics (who had become a minority to the surging Protestants in Marlyand) and granted all Christians the right to follow their beliefs and hold church services. Maryland was no a colony of Christian religious freedom. Freeholds-Small family-farmed (tobacco) plantations that were the main source of tobacco in the Chesapeake region in the early part of the tobacco boom (1620s). Indentured Servant-poor whites in England who were impoverished and abused in Englands’ city poorhouses who there were displaced to the cities after the government enclosed their lands in the countryside.
They wanted to settle in the colonies to obtain land and economic opportunity (social mobility), so to pay for their passage over they signed indentures from merchants (who would sell them to planters) that said they would work as a servant on a plantation for 4-5 years and then were free. Many died en route or were abused to death on plantations, and only 25% actually acquired land and success afterwards. Black Codes-laws enforced by Chesapeake planters to limit the freedom and severely restrict rights of African workers in the colonies (like owning guns, traveling). These codes made slavery legal, and encouraged racist ideas to differentiate poor whites from blacks, elevating them and make slaves inferior beings (all because slave importation skyrocketed when tobacco boom crashed).
Navigation Acts-passed by English Parliament in early 1660s as the main device of mercantilist policy in England (wanted to exclusively capitalize on their American colonies’ raw materials and market for manufactured goods), they prevented colonists from selling tobacco to all countries besides the English (lost money from Dutch), and all tobacco went to England where there were higher import duties. Consequently tobacco prices fell and planters were forced to use the cheaper labor of black slaves, and political problems resulted in the Chesapeake colonies. Governor William Berkeley-royal Governor of Virginia (Jamestown) who was instructed to run the colony only for the benefit of England (1642-1652).
He was part of, and favored the planter-merchant elite. Corrupt: to win support in House of Burgesses bribed officials with land grants and took vote away from landless freemen (50% of white pop.). Increased the already growing disparities in wealth and status among VA population. Nathaniel Bacon-a wealthy farmer (was on governor’s council), he was a leader of colonial frontiersmen in western deep Virginia (west). Like other poorer farming frontiersmen, was angered over Gov. Berkeley’s inability to protect western VA frontier land (like his own) from Indian attacks; also angry at the rights and corruption of VA’s wealthy inner circle. Bacon’s Rebellion-1676, Nathaniel Bacon led other fellow poor frontiersmen on Indian raids because they were being attacked by Indians.
The poor frontiersmen were all angry at the tobacco monopoly that the elite eastern planters had, that they lost their voting rights, and that they were overtaxed. Gained popularity with his Indian raids. Seen as a Martyr when he was arrested by Berkeley and was freed by yeomen. He and forces burned Jamestown, but when he died Berkeley violently crushed rebellion with British military aid. Made colonies turn away from indentured servant labor and toward slave labor. Manifesto and Declaration of the People
William Bradford-Puritan who led Puritans and migrants from England (102) to America in 1620 aboard the Mayflower and settled in Plymouth, in SE MA. While en route, he said they lacked a royal charter from England, and issued the Mayflower Compact. Mayflower Compact-issued by William Bradford aboard Mayflower to migrants/Puritans which coalesced the migrants (just wanting to go to VA for economic opportunity) with the Puritans (wanting to be independent and free of Protestant VA) by declaring they would live in a “civil body politick” using the Puritans’ self-governing congregation to shape their political structure. John Winthrop-Well-educated Puritan country squire who led the exodus of Puritans from England in 1630 (they were being persecuted against by “Catholic” King Charles I), to set up govern the Massachusetts Bay Colony (Boston). He declared to his people “we shall be as a City upon a Hill.”
He meant that God had chosen them to be a shining example and hope for all (Christian) religions, like those in what he considered to be a morally corrupt England, wanted to inspire religious reform throughout the Christian world. Massachusetts Bay-Colony established and governed by John Winthrop 1630, who led exodus of Puritans from a morally corrupt England where his people were being persecuted, sought to create a “New” England that was a reformed Christian society. Colony was a representative political body with an assembly, and made Puritanism the sole state religion (no other religions allowed), only church members could vote/hold office. Used Bible as legal guide, and embraced simple Christian principles––churches were controlled by the people (congregationalist) with no hierarchy and were meetinghouses. These Puritans believed in predestination (John Calvin), a doctrine that God chose only a select few individuals for salvation before they were born.
Many sought a “born again” experience. Because they thought they were “chosen” as a city upon a hill, they felt the right to seize Indian lands. Roger Williams-Roger Williams was a Puritan minister who opposed congregationalism, praised the separation of church and state, advocated religious tolerance (the government didn’t have authority over spiritual lives), and didn’t believe in Puritan’s seizure of Indian land. These were all opposite views than the status quo of Mass. Bay. In 1636, he was banished so he led his followers to settle the town of Providence (Rhode Island) the land he bought from Indians. Got a charter from Parliament in 1644 to establish the colony of Rhode Island (complete religious freedom). Anne Hutchinson-A Mass. Bay wife who held weekly prayer meetings for women, she preached controversial and differing views: she believed salvation could not be achieved through good deeds, people only bestowed by God through “the covenant of grace.”
She said that God spoke his divine truth directly to individuals, not through the church. As a woman with considerable influence, she was banished in 1637, for her heretical views and as a threat to the superiority of men in the Puritan church. Joined Roger Williams in RI. Thomas Hooker-Puritan pastor who brought some Puritans to the Connecticut River Valley in 1636 and established the town of Hartford (left NE because of differing views and search for better farmland). Connecticut became royal colony in 1660 with charter from King Charles II. Had a legally established church but granted voting rights to all land-owning men. Cotton Mather-A popular Puritan theologian who believed in supernatural forces, that unusual events were the power displayed by God or Satan. Lead to the Salem Witch Trials.
Spectral Evidence-The evidence allowed by judges at the accused witches’ trials (in the Salem Witch Trials), which was visions of evil beings and marks seen only by the girls (who suffered “supernatural” seizures). Praying Towns-Indian villages that Puritan ministers like John Eliot turned into intensely Christian communities by 1670 in efforts to convert Indians. The 1000 Indian residents lost their independence and culture, and new native form of Christianity were made by traditional spiritual beliefs incorporated into churches.
Metacom-Chief of the Wampanoags who with two other tribes staged a rebellion in 1675-1676, attacking white settlements all over New England in hopes to finally expel the Europeans. He knew coexistence was unlikely and was angry that NE colonists restricted their trade and accused them of many violations. Had they not run out of gunpowder, the rebellion might have been a success. The NE colonies’ losses were significant, as some places lost 5% of their population; but Indians lost 25% of their population and the three tribes (Wampanoags, Narragansetts, and Nipmucks) displaced/retreated west to the backcountry.
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