The Influences of Cross Cultural Training Essay
The influences of cross cultural training on the organisation and staffs Cross-cultural efficiency is very fundamental in international organisations and even in domestic organizations that have suppliers, customers and partners in other countries. We need to firm understanding of it into everything we do, when working across cultures becomes our normal way of working. Therefore, cross cultural training becomes an important part of training employees because organisations want to push their performance to success. Furthermore, by cross cultural training such as leadership development for management across cultures, companies will become more competitive in the global business world. In addition, there are different programs to cover cross cultural training; each program will try to achieve a better understanding of client needs.
Generally, Paige,1986 quoted in Bhawuk & Brislin (2000) “ defined cross-cultural orientation as training programs designed to prepare people to live and carry out specific assignments as well as those that is designed to prepare people to return to their home country after completing their assignment in another culture”. Nowadays important and big companies send their staffs to other countries to establish and manage their businesses, those staffs are usually chosen because of their skills but it sometimes these skills will be difficult to use in a new environment. So increase the possibility of success of those staffs to use their skills at the same level of their work in their country will be the priority of companies. Therefore cross cultural training is a significant importance to help to reduce the chance of failure in a new work environment.
Bean (2006), gives useful information of this topic as in the Australian Context project over 60% of participants like to take more training because their knowledge improved about the culture, also 88% of participants want to be compulsory for all employees in positions of customers contact, and a survey of public sector show that in year 2000 to 2005 the cross cultural training was able to achieve its goals although the level of the training was low compared with the level of demand of increasing the training. So this study will exam the applying of the CCAC theory to cross cultural training, positives and negatives impacts of cross cultural training on both organisation and staffs.
Initially, Tarique and Caligiuri (2009), stated that based on CCAC theory cross cultural training will be more effective in a country than pre departure because an employee will exercise what he has learned from training in own country in a country he will work in. Moreover, the theory takes about the sequencing of training activities, which is the activities of cross cultural training, should be over a suitable period to increase employees learning. Finally, CCAC provides guidance about the delivery of cross-cultural training when this guide is used the employees will be able to achieve a good understanding about the training. So based on the theory employees who has trained the cross cultural training will achieve a good improvement about the country culture, knowledge at work, and adjustment in the work and out the work.
Secondary, the positive and negative impacts of cross cultural training on organisation and staffs. Firstly, a main goal of CCT is to improve more cosmopolitan directors who have more ability to understand cultural differences and who can apply this understanding in cross-cultural cases. This improvement requires more care to both the reactions and behaviours (Harrison, n.d.). The positive effects as Roysircar, Gard, Hubbell, and Ortega (2005) that described that in the process of self-reflection there was a good result of trainees in the improvement of multicultural organisations. The benefits of cross cultural training (1) decrease the strong of culture shock (2) help trainees to get a level of cultural proficiency faster (3) develop the effective of work (4) the general adjustment of trainees’ families will improve (5) improve the ability of employees to make relationships in work and out of work (6) develop communication, self-maintenance, and perceptual skills ( Eschbach, Parker, and Stoeberl 2001).
Selmer (2006) found that big international firms could use cross cultural training to improve the level their global projects and to ensure their expatriates have skills required also they use it to ensure the success of their foreign assignment. Anderson’s (2001) showed that nearly all the expatriates in the private, public and non-government sectors said that their previous overseas experience had helped them to adjust to their new environments. Cultural awareness training use to strengthen the capacity of the team members to Adapt to conditions is unknown. It does not focus on specific geographic areas, but uses any area and clarification of adjustment challenges (Gudykunst et al, 1996). Brandl and Neyer (2009) analysed that goal of Cultural awareness training to change the members of team’s behaviours toward information and alternative perspectives.
Instead of seeing new information as a threat and refuse it, it teaches trainees to see new information as a chance to master unknown conditions. Brandl and Neyer (2009) also discussed that cultural awareness training improve team knowledge to know ways to deal with unknown situations. This is significantly important to manage uncertainty when working in a team in another environment . We say that CCT helps team members training in a more open approach with other members in global teams, too, it is more likely to be able to control errors that can not be avoided in the interpretation of others’ Messages and predict their behaviour (Gudykunst, 1998, p. 237). The CCT is so important because May rely on ready-made concepts for others adversely affect the adaptation and experience is likely to lead to a climate of mistrust and exclusion team (Richards, 1996). Training in cultural awareness, When faced with team members how to Solutions for supporting and activating resources, they are more willing to explore unknown cases (Glanz et al, 2001).
Moreover, cultural awareness training is the study of the main culture of the trainees and their impact on his / her attitude to enable the trainee to understand the differences of a cultural nature (Eschbach et al., 2001). CCT helps to increase managerial benefits in world operations such as cross-cultural discussions, increase the ability of making decisions, improve the relationship with customers, and other management prospects (Harris & Moran, 1991). In hierarchical cultures, leaders are the ones who make decisions and staffs are implemented them without any rejection or modification of these decisions, while in cultures of equality, leaders and staffs work together to make decisions and do the implementation of the decision, so employees ,who do cross cultural training to understand these differences, should improve their cultural knowledge as a team early in the formation of the group to build confidence and decrease misunderstandings (Goodman, 2012).
In British Petroleum Company a manager of employees mentioned that CCT assists BP Oil managers to create policies for national needs (Hagerty, 1993). CCT affects highly upon the trainee’s ability to make a positive relationship with the local employees, to achieve the aim of their global assignments (Ko & Yang, 2011). Because the world is becoming smaller so CCT has become important for multinational companies to improve the knowledge of cultural difference and to succeed of their expatriates on global assignments, so CCT should lead to increase the performance of these companies (Caligiuri et al, 2001). CCT is important because distressed trainees are appropriate to have emotional support and encouragement to be given at this time (Grove and Tobin, 1985).
Also Grove and Torbiorn (1985) proposed that cross-cultural training should try to changes in three psychological things, ‘applicability of behaviour, clarity of mental frame of reference, and level of mere adequacy’, Which leads to maintaining personal identity of the trainees while Change some of the values, behaviour, and ways of thinking patterns and behaviour to make them consistent with those prevailing in the new environment.
There is a high demand for the CCT program at private and public firms to increase customer service performances, the fact that short training programs even lead to benefits and generate interest investments in CCT stronger and more focused on the work is likely to achieve greater returns for organizations measurable (Bean, 2006). Ashamalla (1998) argues that foreign language training has to be in CCT because knowing about the language of the host country is the main thing for success in living and working in that country. Rubin (1967) wrote that CCT may be an important technique to reduce of ethnic prejudice. Finally, CCT is concentrating on doing international assignment, and specific cultural issues (Shen and Darby 2006).
On the other hand, the negative influences are Berrell, Wright and Hoa (1999), explained that the conflicts can be a significant problem as Australia managers, who worked in joint ventures with Vietnamese managers, wanted to control and manage the work on own way but Vietnamese managers wanted to work together with Australia managers to achieve the goals, also the view of Australia managers with the dealing with issues was open and enthusiastic which pushed Vietnamese managers to view this thing as a negative experience, but they try to solve any disagree problems while Australia mangers faced problems directly which created conflicts. Scullion and Collings (2006) wrote that the realisation of time and energy will be worthless if the cross cultural training programme fail to address key factors of effective performance in the host country.
Cultural awareness training recognizes that cultural patterns are difficult tools and inconsistent (DiMaggio, 1997). Cross-cultural training may fail to make an important variation in cross-cultural adaptation and in performance on the global job results in transfer of training problem which is known as the trainee’s failure to apply the knowledge and skills gained in training to his/her work (Burke and Hutchins, 2007; Saks and Belcourt, 2006). The financial cost of trainees’ return to their countries, who fail to do the CCT successfully, is high; some studies put a cost from $50000 to $150000 which loss firms more money than the fact (Black & Mendenhall, 1990).
When managers, who do CCT, are unable to achieve high chances to their businesses because of they do not have enough cross-cultural skills, they prevent the firms from successfully achieve its strategic goals, also a shortage in management in cross cultural training programme may result a shortage of growth and success internationally (Harrison, n.d.). In summary, this study has sought to show CCAC theory, and its view about cross cultural training which it prefers the trainees do CCT before leaving their country to have an overview about the host country. Furthermore, it shows the positive and negative influences of CCT on both firms and staffs, for example, CCT will improve the performance of both global organisations and employees, communication skills, reducing cultural shock. Although it can create a conflict between staffs and financial cost can be more than needing but this study thinks the advantages of cross cultural training overcome the disadvantages.
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