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Three Energy System That Are Responsible to the Production of Atp sample essay

Glycolytic System

Glycolytic system is the breaking down of glucose or liver glycogen to pyruvic acid via glycolytic enzymes. This system only uses carbohydrate as the main source of fuel and occurs in the sarcoplasm of the muscle cells. The glycolysis system can rapidly produce ATP without use oxygen. Glycogen is synthesized from glucose by a process called glycogenesis and stored in the liver or in muscle until needed. Before either glucose or glycogen can be used to generate energy, they must be converted to a compound called glucose-6-phosphate.

The conversion of a molecule of glucose requires 1mole of ATP. mole of glucose produces 2ATPs or 1 mole of glycogen produces 3ATPs. Glycolitic system provides energy for high intensity exercise up to 2 minutes. If oxygen is not available to accept the hydrogen ions in mitochondria, pyruvic acid can accept the hydrogen ions to form the lactic acid. This accumulation of lactic acid is a major limitation of anaerobic glycolysis. This acidification of muscle fibers inhibits further glycogen breakdown because it impairs glycolytic enzymes functions. Oxidative system Oxidative production of ATP occurs within the mitochondria.

It has a very high-energy yield and yields more energy that the ATP-PC or glycolytic system. it acts as the main energy production during endurance activities. The oxidative production of ATP involves: * Oxidation of carbohydrate. * Involves 3 processes which are aerobic glycolysis, the krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. * In Aerobic glycolysis, glucose or glycogen is broken down to pyruvic acid via glycolitic enzymes during carbohydrate metabolism. Hydrogen is released and glucose is metabolized to pyruvic acid. In the presence of oxygen, the pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl coenzyme A. Acetyl CoA). 1 mole of glucose produce 2 moles of ATP or 1 mole of glycogen produces 3 moles of ATP.

* In the Kreb Cycle system, once the acetyl CoA is formed, it enters the krebs cycle, a complex series of chemical reactions that permit the complete oxidation of acetyl coenzyme A. in this process, the carbohydrate has been broken down into carbon and hydrogen. The remaining carbon then combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. The hydrogen ion released conbines with 2 coenzymes which are NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) to enter electron transport chain.

At the end of krebs cycle, 2moles of ATP will be formed. * The Electron transport chain, also known as respiratory chain or cytochrome chain. In this process, the coenzymes carry the H atoms (NADH and FADH) to the electron transport chain split into protons and electrons. At the end of the chain, Hydrogen ion combines with oxygen to form water, thus preventing acidification.

The electron thet were split from the Hydrogen pass through a series of reactions and ultimately provide energy for the phosphorylation of ADP, thus forming ATP. This process relies on oxygen, referred as oxidative phosphorylation. Energy yield from carbohydrate: 1mole of glycogen generates up to 39 moles of ATP. if 1 mole of glucose, the net gain is 38 ATP (1 mole of ATP is used for conversion to glucose-6-phosphate before glycolysis. ) * Oxidation of fat * Muscle and liver glycogen stores provide only 1200- 2000 kcal of energy while fat stored inside the muscle fibers can supply about 70,000-75000 kcal of energy. The triglycerides (major energy sources) stored in fat cells in the skeletal muscle fibers will breakdown to its basic units to be used for energy:1 mole of glycerol to 3 moles of free fatty acids.

The free fatty acid can enter blood and be transported throughout the body, entering muscle fibers by diffusion. * Upon entering the muscle fibers, free fatty acid are enzymatically activated with energy from ATP, preparing free fatty acid for catabolism within the mitochondria. This enzymatically catabolism of fat by the mitochondria is called as beta oxidation.

The carbon chain of free fatty acid is cleaved into separated 2 carbon units of acetic acid. For example, free fatty acid with 16-carbon chain, beta oxidation yields 8 moles of acetic acid. Each acetic acid converted to acetyl coenzyme A. In the Kreb Cycle and the Electron Transport Chain, fat metabolism follows the same path as carbohydrates metabolism. The acetyl CoA form by beta oxidation enters the krebs cycle. Then, the krebs cycle generates hydrogen ion that is transported to the electron transport chain, along with hydrogen ion generated during beta oxidation, to undergo oxidative phosphorylation which produce the ATP, water and carbon dioxide. * The complete combustion of free fatty acid molecule requires more oxygen because free fatty acid contains more carbon than a glucose molecule.

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