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| Unification Essay

“War of Devolution” is the war of 1667-1668 years between France and Spain for the Spanish Netherlands. The war was caused by the claims of France on some South-Dutch territories that belonged to the Habsburgs. France, as an excuse, used the so-called “Devolution law” that was in force in some of those areas. It also indicated that in the case of a second marriage, the father passed possession of the lands to his children from his first marriage. They had the advantage of the children from the second marriage. The war broke out after the death of the king of Spain, Philip IV, in 1665. Maria Theresa, his daughter from the first marriage, was the wife of King Louis XIV and the successor to the Spanish throne.

At the end of February 1668, the United Provinces offered their mediation to the Spaniards. Intransigence, showed by the Spaniards at the beginning, has been questioned by military success of France. Thanks to the capture of Franche-Comte, Louis received benefits at the conclusion of peace. April 15 signed preliminary peace terms.

The King of France has agreed to return province of Franche-Comte, Cambrai, Saint-Omer, and Air to Charles II. However, in return, Louis acquired many useful areas in the Netherlands.

Italian wars of France and Spain (the end of XV – XVI century) were conducted for the supremacy in the Northern Italy. In July 13, 1558, near the fortress of Gravelines, there was a battle between the army de Termas, located at the confluence of the River Aa in the North Sea. The battle numbered 8.5 thousand people and the 10000th squad Egmont. After the defeat of France, it was forced to sign a peace union with Spain in 1559. According to it, northern Italy, Naples and Sicily were given to the Spanish. The religious wars in France forced the French kings to abandon attempts to conquer Italy. They were resumed only in the middle of the XVII century.

Austro-Prussian-Italian War in 1866 was the war of Prussia and Italy with the Austrian Empire for supremacy in Germany and for control of the Venice area. It predetermined the path of uniting Germany and the end of the war for the independence of Italy and the United Kingdom of Sardinia.

The war involved two coalitions, led by the two great German powers – Prussia and Austria respectively. Bavaria, Saxony, Baden, Wurttemberg and Hanover were on the side of Austria, while Italy was on the side of Prussia. In addition, each of the opponents was able to win over some minor German states. All 29 states were directly involved in the war, 13 of which were on the side of Austria and 16 were on the side of Prussia.

The war lasted for seven weeks (June 17 – July 26, 1866). Austria was forced to fight on two fronts. Its technological backwardness and political isolation in 1856 led to its defeat. Due to the Prague peace treaty (August 23), Austria passed Holstein Prussia and left the German Confederation, and Italy went to the Venice area. Political outcome of the war in 1866 became the final rejection of the Austrian Association of the German states and went to the hegemony of Prussia in Germany.

Although the war ended with the victory of France, Louis was indignant. He hoped to achieve the possession of Spanish Netherlands and considered the ultimatum of the Netherlands as treason. Louis believed that the assistance of France in the Eighty Years’ War allowed the Dutch to receive independence.

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