| Vulnerability Essay
Vulnerability may be defined as being in a position of becoming susceptible to neglect or harm as a result of acts of commission or omission by others toward another person or group. Such a state exposes one to multiple risk factors such as to be ignored or hurt. Examples of groups which fall under this category of vulnerable population are immigrants, ethnic groups, refugees, single parents, and people with disabilities, youth and children in disadvantaged circumstance._x000D_
Significant attention has been given to researching on the health disparities and vulnerability experienced by some Asian immigrants as the result of ethnicity, poverty, chronic disease or being marginalized socially._x000D_
Key determinants of healthcare outcomes and health include some of the following examples: Race and/or ethnicity have been associated with healthcare and health through several ways such as, gender, cultural factors, socioeconomic status, discrimination, and health care system. Socioeconomic status (e.g., education, income,) is associated with outcomes which relate to health through deprivation of resources and opportunity for social contribution. Health insurance affects utilization of quality care and healthcare. In addition to these risk factors, other factors are important to precise outcomes of interest; they are also summed up in each of the examples._x000D_
A primary goal for most if not all countries are to decrease or totally eliminate disparity in healthcare. An increased number of immigrants have resulted to increased health care disparities as they are in a situation where they are unable to meet the health care cost. Using researched data, risk profiles have been created for common measuring of patient who claimed their healthcare needs have been unmet, most of which were brought about by concerns over high costs. These are composed of inadequate or lack of medical care, delayed filling of prescription, delayed medical care and delayed healthcare. Numerous risk factors for these healthcare needs which were unmet were chosen using the Adam and Andersen’s access to health care model. These are composed of individual level predisposing (e.g., ethnicity or race) and factors categorized as enabling factors (i.e., health insurance, income, source of care). The analyses was also adjusted such that community and demographic factors, including marital status, age, education ,gender, employment, metropolitan statistical area, health status, and geographic region were incorporated._x000D_
Another significant discovery is that some of the risk factors seem to have an effect which is multiplicative, rather than an additive effect, which is dependant on ethnic/racial group. Comprehending these multiplicative effects requires policy attention and particular research. The profile of multiple risk factors takes in to account a more comprehensive view of healthcare needs which are unmet: without consideration to ethnicity/race, lack of insurance coverage, having low income, and not having regular care combined to create significant barriers to accessing health services. One in five Asian immigrants with chronic disease has multiple risk factors for healthcare needs which have been unmet and the barriers make up to a fivefold rise in the rates of unmet needs._x000D_
Due to increased Asian immigrant delivery of preventive and primary services to vulnerable populations has been a challenge and hence a strain to the healthcare system. In order to achieve equity in accessing quality of care for all Asian immigrants with chronic disease it is a great challenge for a nation. One approach for minimizing disparities is to measure healthcare using health indicators and their associated risk factors. However, these data are often reported by concentrating on particular risk factors rather than in a in a way which emphasizes the effects of a multiple risk factors as depicted by the general model of vulnerability._x000D_
Due to the fact that state and national datasets store information on a variety of risk factors, policy makers and researchers benefit from clearly examining the multiple risks that influence and affect vulnerable populations concurrently, as has been demonstrated. From examples suggest earlier the determinants of healthcare and health problems are multi-factorial hence they can be studied using an integrative approach such as risk profiles. These methodologies can improve our knowledge of health disparities and give guidance on possible policy interventions aimed at targeting limited resources for the most vulnerable groups_x000D_
Asian immigrants are categorized as vulnerable group because they have multiple risk factors due to poor health and living conditions and lack insurance cover. Analyst hypothesized that due to having a great figure of risk factors related to a dose response manner with poor Asian immigrant risk of developmental and health status delay. There are several consistent and strong predictors of poor health, of which include the following models: lower family social class ( this is based on maternal education and poverty status), ethnicity/race, un insurance, and finally poor mental health (measured with the help of Mental Health Inventory scores. All the multiple logistic models are adjusted according to gender and age, employment and maternal age, and single parent house hold._x000D_
Recent research shows that reducing ethnic, gender-related, socioeconomic, and geographic inequalities in health (can be done through decreasing inequalities in availability and access to fundamental determinants of health as access to housing, education, safe living, food, health services and working conditions) is more likely to produce health benefits similar in scale to those which accrue from decrease in conventional ‘lifestyle’ risk factors for the majority of chronic diseases._x000D_
Research in nursing has a played a major in developing this body of knowledge as it has tested knowledge concerning health disparities in vulnerable groups and analyzed the progress made. Nursing research has made considerable contributions in spreading the body of knowledge linked to health disparities in which vulnerable populations experience and the methodology related to research on vulnerable populations. Areas for potential research are studies which are community based involvement in studies that give substantial resources, and methodological approaches._x000D_
In summary, a majority of these disparities in health are described poorly and also poorly documented. They factors have largely remained unchanged and haven’t been addressed through rigorously program interventions and evaluation policy. Wide-ranging research programs are consequently necessary to investigate, describe, and trim down such disparities through well-designed intervention research. Such research programs need to assess and acknowledge the numerous possible sources of health disparities, including socio-economic ,biological, cultural, physical characteristics of vulnerable populations, as well as barriers which restrict access to suitable health care services, and also investigate the wide range of interventions which have the could potential lessen health disparities.
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