| What are Chemical and Biological Weapons Essay
Chemical and biological weapons are one of the most severe weapons in the world. These types of the weapons are aimed to do harm or destroy human beings. The results of their application are very horrific. That is why many countries all over the world refused to use such types of weapons._x000D_
Chemical weapons use the poisonous properties of chemical substances for producing physical or psychological effects on enemies. There are many toxic elements, which can be used in chemical weapons. Every type of agent that must be produced has its own characteristics. Some of the agents depend on temperature and they must be preserved under the strictest temperature control. Some of the agents can cause corrosion. Well-known examples of chemical weapons in the modern world are tear and nerve gases. Nerve gas is directed to attack the nervous system of the human beings. The effect of it is very long lasting. The victims of this type of attack suffer chronic neurological diseases. _x000D_
Biological weapons use such pathogens as bacteria and viruses, which excite many diseases. Many viruses are not of natural origin. They can be produced in laboratories. L. Cole wrote and explained why biological weapons are more dangerous than chemical ones. He commented that chemical weapons do not consist of living microorganisms while biological weapons consist of viruses and bacteria, which can be reconstituted. In length of time, chemical weapons disappear from the surface of the Earth. However, biological weapons become more dangerous with time because it can be reproduced in new variations (with some mutations). _x000D_
The history of chemical weapon’s using is very old and its roots reach the times of Old Greece. The first people who used chemical weapons were Greek. They used it during the Trojan War in 431 BC. Of course, it was the simplest type of chemical weapons: they used easy technologies. It was a production of suffocating fumes. They mixed sulfur with pitch resin. In addition, Germany used chemical weapons at the times of the World War I. Many sources prove that French used chemical weapons in the first months of the war. In August 1914, French fired tear-gas shell against Germany. Moreover, the enemy stroke back. There were many victims, about five thousand people died and fifteen thousand people were injured. Germany wanted to end the war quickly and for this purpose, they used chlorine gas. The World War I was chemical war. In 1917, mustard gas was used. About ninety-one thousand people were killed and about one million were injured. The results of its use were terrible and that is why in 1922 such countries as the United States of America, Japan, France, Italy and Britain signed the Washington Treaty. In addition, in 1925 the Geneva Protocol was signed. According to these treaties no one country can use or even produce chemical weapons. In spite of these treatments, Italy used chemical weapons during the World War II. Besides, the United States used chemical weapons in Vietnam War, in 1961-1973. After these wars, many countries agreed to destroy chemical weapons. Of course, they needed much money for this, however the security of the planet and next generations are more important._x000D_
The history of biological weapons is also very old and it reaches the antique times. In the 6th century BC, Assyrians poisoned their enemies with fungus. They caused adversaries’ delirious. Many books describe the events of biological weapons using. Mongols and Turks used infected animals while Britons used smallpox as a weapon. In his book, Harris described that during the war the Japanese army poisoned about one thousand water fountains. They did it because they studied outbursts of typhus and cholera._x000D_
Therefore, the creation of chemical and biological weapons was not easy. Much money and human sources were given for research, development and improvement of these types of weapons. However, the most difficult was not the creation of this weapon but its control. In biological weapons, many viruses can be destroyed only under specific circumstances. People were blinded with their goals to kill other people and nations. They wanted to have power and to own new territories. That is why so many humans died because of the influence of chemical and biological weapons._x000D_
Nowadays, the entire world understands that using of chemical and biological weapons can lead the planet to its destruction. Even all modern technologies cannot stop or fully control these types of weapons. People had the same problems many centuries ago. That is why many countries signed a range of agreements and protocols. Such international documents give the guarantee of safety in our world._x000D_
The authorities in all the states want to protect their inhabitants from weapons of massive destruction. That is why from 1980 to 2000 most of countries decided to destroy all chemical weapons. In addition, scientists started to develop masks, costumes and equipment, which can protect people from biological and chemical weapons. Costumes consist of jackets, trousers, gloves, boots and masks that protect people from the destructive effect of these weapons._x000D_
As for me, do not use it at all – is the best way of protection from such terrible weapons. Non-use is the greatest guarantee of safety for all human beings.
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